Publications

 

 

Selected publications on topics related to international climate policy negotiations and carbon markets authored by Perspectives staff.

 

 

2017


IFDD Guide to the Negotiations: UNFCCC (COP23)

 

United Nations Framwork Convention on Climate Change: Twenty-third Conference of the Parties (COP23)

 

by Stéphane Pouffary (ENERGIES 2050), Antoine Antonini (ENERGIES 2050), Frédéric Gagnon-Lebrun (IISD), Yanick Touchette (IISD), Alice Bisiaux (IISD), Kamel Djemouai, Axel Michaelowa (Perspectives), Matthias Honneger (Perspectives), Marjorie Menard (Perspectives), Aglaja Espelage (Perspectives), El Hadji Mbaye Diagne (Afrique-Energie–Environnement), Marc Freitas (Perspective Climat et Développement Durable), Guillaume De Laboulaye (ENERGIES 2050), Stéphane Quefelec (ENERGIES 2050) and Laurent Dittrick (ENERGIES 2050), Yael Pouffary (Energies 2050)

 

Download the Summary for Policymakers in English and French

Download the Complete Guide in English and French

 

 

Ensuring Additionality under Art. 6 of the Paris Agreement: Suggestions for modalities and procedures for crediting of mitigation under Art 6.2 and 6.4 and public finance provision under Art. 6.8

 

Discussion paper enhancing the debate on Article 6 by providing suggests for additionality rules in the context of NDCs and the Paris Agreeement.

by Axel Michaelowa and Sonja Butzengeiger

 

Download here

 


The Paris Market Mechanisms’ Contribution to Global Greenhouse Gas Mitigation: Complementarities and Tensions between Article 6.2 and Article 6.4

 

Contribution to the Harvard Project on Climate Agreements on options for elaborating the Paris Agreement’s Article 6. 

by Axel Michaelowa

 

Download here

 


Guardrails for the Paris mechanisms: Operationalizing Article 6 and generating carbon market credibility

 

Analysis reflecting on how to operationalise Article 6 of the Paris Agreement and enhance carbon market integrity in the latest issue of Carbon Mechanisms Review Journal 

by Axel Michaelowa and Stephan Hoch

 

Download here

 

 

Feasibility Study for a Waste NAMA in India

 

Report on behalf of the Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ)

by Axel Michaelowa, Sven Feige, Matthias Honegger (Perspectives); Mikael Henzler, Jan Janssen, Sibylle Kabisch (adelphi); Atul Sanghal, Sunil Sharma (EVI); Pravinjith KP, Anita Kumari (ecoparadigm)

 

Download here

 

 

Linking the Clean Development Mechanism with the Green Climate Fund 

 

Insights from Practitioners and Decision Makers in Africa

by Hilda Galt, Dario Brescia and Sebastian Mayr

 

Download here

 

 

A new perspective on the carbon market

 

Article published in IDB's Integration & Trade Journal: Volume 21: No. 41: March, 2017: Eco Integration in Latin America, p. 178-190

by Axel Michaelowa

  

Download here in english or in spanish.

 

 

SD-Benefits in Future Market Mechanisms under the UNFCCC

 

Final report on behalf of the Federal Environment Agency (Germany)

by Björn Dransfeld and Stefan Wehner (The Greenwerk); Tanushree Bagh, Patrick Bürgi, Ingo Puhl and Madlaina Zegg (The South Pole Group); Valentin Friedmann, Stephan Hoch, Matthias Honegger, Axel Michaelowa, Linde Warland (Perspectives)

  

Download here

 

 

Transforming from INDCs to NDCs in Africa

 

AfDB CIF Knowledge Series

by Axel Michaelowa, Stephan Hoch, Matthias Honegger and Valentin Friedmann

 

Download here

 

 

Features and implications of NDCs for carbon markets

 

Report commissioned by the Swedish Energy Agency on international cooperation for climate change mitigation

by Andrew Howard (Koru Climate), Thiago Chagas (Climate Focus), Jelmer Hoogzaad (Climate Focus) and Stephan Hoch (Perspectives)

 

Download here

 

 

Economic instruments

 

Book chapter in: Aerts, Jeroen; Mysiak Jaroslav (eds.): Novel Multi-Sector Partnerships in Disaster Risk Management, Brussels, 2017, p. 70-97 

by Reinhard Mechler,, Manuel Pulido-Velazquez, Michel Koehler, Katie Jenkins, Swenja Surminski, Keith Williges, Wouter Botzen, Roger Cremades, Bjoern Dransfeld, Paul Hudson, Antonio Lopez-Nicolas, Anna Lorant, Maria Manez and Axel Michaelowa

 

Download here

 

 

Summary of the study: Linking the Clean Development Mechanism with the Green Climate Fund

 

Summary of the models for scaling up mitigation actions

Study published by Perspectives, Climate Focus and Area Group

 

Download here

 

 

Documentation of IFAT 2016 Side Event Climate-friendly Waste Management through NAMAs in Emerging Economies and Developing Countries

 

Documentation on behalf of the German Environment Agency 

by Axel Michaelowa and Valentin Friedmann

 

Download here

 

 

 

 

2016


The Impact of INDCs, NAMAs and LEDS on Ci-Dev Operations and Programs

 

Report to the World Banks Carbon Initiative for Development

by Axel Michaelowa, Stephan Hoch, Matthias Honegger, Valentin Friedmann and Frederic Hans

 

Download here

 

 

Perspectives' evaluation of COP22 Marrakech

 

by Axel Michaelowa

 

Download here

 


De Paris à Marrakech ou le défi de la mise en oeuvre

 

Vingt-deuxième Conférence des Parties à la Convention-cadre des Nations Unies sur les changements climatiques (CdP22, CRP12 et CRA1)

Guide des négociations by IFDD

by Stéphane Pouffary (ENERGIES 2050), Sandra Freitas (Climate Analytics), Tosi Mpanu-Mpanu (Président du Groupe des PMA), Seyni Nafo (Ambassadeur Climat Mali), Antoine Antonini (ENERGIES 2050), Frédéric Gagnon-Lebrun (IISD), Yanick Touchette (IISD), Kamel Djemouai, Axel Michaelowa (Perspectives), El Hadji Mbaye Diagne (Afrique-Energie–Environnement), Guillaume De Laboulaye (ENERGIES 2050), Stéphane Quefelec (ENERGIES 2050) and Laurent Dittrick (ENERGIES 2050)

 

Download here

 

 

Prospects for Africa’s CDM activities under the Paris Agreement

 

Policy Briefing by Perspectives and ClimateFocus

by Sandra Greiner, Stephan Hoch, Andrew Howard, Mandy Rambharos and El Hadji Mbaye Diagne 

 

Download here

 

 

Enhancing Green Bond Transparency through CDM

 

Two Pager

by Axel Michaelowa, Stephan Hoch, Abdeldjellil Bouzidi and Valentin Friedmann 

 

Download here

 

 

Boosting climate action through innovative debt instruments

 

Combining debt for climate swaps and climate policy performance bonds, Concept Note

by Axel Michaelowa, Abdeldjellil Bouzidi and Valentin Friedmann 

 

Download here

 

 

Linking the Clean Development Mechanism with the Green Climate Fund 

 

Models for scaling up mitigation action, published by Perspectives, ClimateFocus and Aera

by Szymon Mikolajczyk, Dario Brescia, Hilda Galt, Fabrice Le Saché Tobias Hunzai, Sandra Greiner, Stephan Hoch

 

Download here

 

 

The Paris Agreement: The future relevance of UNFCCC-backed carbon markets for Africa

 

Policy Brief

by Axel Michaelowa, Sandra Greiner, Stephan Hoch, Fabrice Le Saché, Dario Brescia, Hilda Galt, Sebastian Mayr, El-Hadj Mbaye Diagne

 

Download here

 

 

Analysis of the MRV Issues Underlying the Development of a NAMA from a PoA in the Republic of Rwanda

 

Final Report

by Axel Michaelowa, Matthias Honegger and Stephan Hoch

 

Download here

 

 

Investing in ambition, Analysis of the financial aspects in (Intended) Nationally Determined Contributions

 

Study published by Perspectives and Germanwatch

by Lutz Weischer, Linde Warland, David Eckstein, Stephan Hoch, Axel Michaelowa, Michel Koehler and Stefan Wehner, with contributions from Sven Harmeling, Julia Grimm, Valentin Friedmann and Linda Beyschlag

 

Download here

 

 

Supporting Energy Pricing Reform and Carbon Pricing Policies Through Crediting  

 

Study commissioned by the World Bank Group

by Perspectives: Axel Michaelowa, Stephan Hoch, Matthias Honegger, Tyeler Matsuo and Vanessa Villa

IISD: Peter Wooders, Philip Gass, Richard Bridle, Christopher Beaton

Ricardo: Mark Johnson and James Harries

 

Download here

 

 

How to transition from the CDM to the Sustainable Development Mechanism under the Paris Agreement 

 

Built on experience study in Carbon Mechanisms Review 01|2016

by Axel Michaelowa and Stephan Hoch

 

Download here

 

 

 

2015


Market Mechanisms: Incentives and Integration in the Post-2020 World 

 

Study commissioned by the Federal Office of Environment FOEN

by Axel Michaelowa, Jürg Füssler, Matthias Honegger, Stephan Hoch, Linde Warland, Tyeler Matsuo, Martin Herren, Alexander Wunderlich and Charlotte Streck

Berne: Federal Office of Environment FOEN

 

Download here

 

 

New climate investments must strengthen sustainable development and minimize trade-offs

 

Briefing Paper 22/2015 

by Stephan Hoch, Britta Horstmann, Axel Michaelowa, Jonas Hein
Bonn: German Development Institute / Deutsches Institut für Entwicklungspolitik (DIE)

 

Download here

 

 

Progress and potential of CDM reform and post-Paris market mechanisms for Africa

Policy Briefing

 

by Stephan Hoch, Sandra Greiner, Axel Michaelowa, Fabrice Le Saché, Adriaan Korthuis, El-Hadji Mbaye Diagne

 

Download here, fact sheet

 

 

Can debt for climate swaps be a promising climate finance instrument?

Lessons from the past and recommendations for the future

 

by Linde Warland, Axel Michaelowa - Perspectives GmbH

 

Download here

 

 

Assessing Global Climate Engineering Governance – Policy Dialogue Brief 

 

Workshop report on behalf of the Stanley Foundation, April 2015

by Matthias Honegger, Axel Michaelowa and Inken Krause

 

Download here

 

 

Developing Sectoral Mechanisms in the Transition Period towards a New Climate Treaty - CLIMATE CHANGE 01/2015

 

Environmental Research of the Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation, Building and Nuclear Safety

Project No. (FKZ) 3713 41 506 Report No. (UBA-FB) 002026/E

by Björn Dransfeld, Stephan Hoch, Matthias Honegger, Axel Michaelowa - Perspectives GmbH


Download here

 

 

Practicability of transitioning from CDM to future climate policy instruments - Synthesis Report

 

Ufoplan Vorhaben (FKZ) 12 41 158 

by Björn Dransfeld, Aki Kachi, Dennis Tänzler, Stephan Hoch, Lena Ruthner, Axel Michaelowa Perspectives GmbH


Download here

 

 

Linking CDM PoAs and NAMAs - Legal and technical challenges and design options

 

UNEP Programme, March 2015

by Axel Michaelowa, Matthieu Wemaere, Matthias Honegger, Stephan Hoch, Tyeler Matsuo

 

Download here

 

 

Methodology for CDM eligibility criteria definition

 

Study for KfW - Kreditanstalt für Wiederaufbau 

by Stephan Hoch, Axel Michaelowa, Björn Dransfeld, Matthias Honegger - Perspectives GmbH - and Dominik Englert, Luzia Bieri, Urs Brodman, Ricarda Alt

 

Download here

 


Analysis of Possible New Market Mechanisms Pilot Activities beyond the PMR

 

Study for the German Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation, Building and Nuclear Safety 

by Björn Dransfeld, Stephan Hoch, Axel Michaelowa

 

Download here

 

 

 

2014


IRENA Handbook on Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions (NAMAs), 2nd Edition

 

Handbook for the International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA) 

by Axel Michaelowa, Björn Dransfeld and Alberto Galante .

 

Download English version

Download Spanish version

 

 

Developing sectoral mechanisms in the transition period towards a new climate treaty

 

Research report for the German Federal Environment Agency, Berlin

Dransfeld, Björn; Hoch, Stephan; Honegger, Matthias 

 

Download here

 

 

 

2013


Guidance for NAMA design - Building on country experiences

 

NAMA guidebook elaborated for UNDP, UNEP-Risö and UNFCCC (November 2013)

 

NAMA guidebook

 

 

Saved health, saved wealth: an approach to quantifying the benefits of climate change adaptation

 

Practical application in costal protection projects in Viet Nam

Report (October 2013)

by Michel Köhler, Axel Michaelowa

  

Saved health, saved wealth

 

 

Fit for Renewables? Design options for the Green Climate Fund to support renewable energy feed-in tariffs in developing countries.

 

Paper by Axel Michaelowa and Stephan Hoch for World Future Council (September 2013)

 

Fit for renewables

 

 

Abundant, carbon free energy technologies – can we turn wishful thinking into reality?

 

Report (May 2013)

by Matthias Honegger, Sonja Butzengeiger-Geyer

 

Abundant, carbon free energy technologies >>

 

 

Advancing Climate Compatible Development for Food Security: Assessment how food security-related elements of national climate change strategies can harness international climate finance in an effective manner

 

Report (February 2013)

by Michel Köhler, Daniela Boos, Sonja Butzengeiger, Axel Michaelowa, Lisa Junghans, Sven Harmeling

 

Task 3 Report final

 

 

 

2012


Agriculture, Food Security and Climate Compatible Development - Case Studies Synthesis Paper

Report

 

Köhler, Michel; Junghans, Lisa; Harmeling, Sven

(June 2012)

 

Leitet Herunterladen der Datei einSythesis Paper final

 

Standardized Baselines for the CDM – Are We on the Right Track?

Policy Paper

 

Schneider, Lambert;  Broekhoff, Derik; Fuessler, Juerg; Lazarus, Michael; Michaelowa, Axel; Spalding-Fecher, Randall

(November 2012)

 

Stockholm.

 

Leitet Herunterladen der Datei einStandardized Baselines for the CDM >>

 

 

Setting baselines for the new market mechanism: Examples from the power, cement and buildings sectors 
Discussion paper

 

Castro, Paula; Hayashi, Daisuke; Harthan, Ralph; Cames, Martin; Michaelowa, Axel

(November 2012)

 

Berlin.

 

Leitet Herunterladen der Datei einSetting baselines for the new market mechanism >>

 

Can New Market Mechanisms Mobilize Emissions Reductions from the Private Sector?
Discussion paper ES 12-1

 

Michaelowa, Axel

(November 2012)

 

Published by the Harvard Project on Climate Agreements, Cambridge.

 

Leitet Herunterladen der Datei einCan New Market Mechanisms Mobilize Emissions Reductions from the Private Sector? >>

 

Chancen und Barrieren für Technikanbieter bei CDM und JI
Discussion paper

 

Butzengeiger-Geyer, Sonja; Michaelowa, Axel; Dransfeld, Björn; Köhler, Michel; Bausch, Camilla; Dreblow, Eike; Tröltzsch, Jenny

(August 2012)

 

Published in Climate Change 13/12 by the Umweltbundesamt, Dessau-Rosslau.

 

Leitet Herunterladen der Datei einChancen und Barrieren für Technikanbieter bei CDM und JI >>

 

Scenarios for the global carbon markets

Strengths and weaknesses of the CDM in comparison with new and emerging market mechanisms

Linking the CDM with new and emerging carbon markets 
Papers for the CDM Policy Dialogue

 

Michaelowa, Axel

(June-July 2012)

 

Leitet Herunterladen der Datei einScenarios for the global carbon markets >>

Leitet Herunterladen der Datei einStrengths and weaknesses of the CDM in comparison with new and emerging market mechanisms >>

Leitet Herunterladen der Datei einLinking the CDM with new and emerging carbon markets >>

 

Market-based mechanisms in a post 2012 climate change regime
Summary report

 

Castro, Paula; Duwe, Matthias; Köhler, Michel; Zelljadt, Elizabeth

(2012)

 

Berlin.

 

Leitet Herunterladen der Datei einMarket-based mechanisms post 2012 >>

 

Equity and cost-effectiveness of adaptation finance - are they friends or foes?
CIS Working Paper 73

 

Stadelmann, Martin; Persson, Åsa; Ratajczak-Juszko, Izabela; Michaelowa, Axel

(2012)

 

Published by the Center for Comparative and International Studies (ETH Zurich and University of Zurich).

 

Leitet Herunterladen der Datei einEquity and cost-effectiveness of adaptation finance >>

 

 

 

2011


Market mechanisms for adaptation to climate change - lessons from mitigation and a pathway to implementation

CIS Working Paper 71

 

Butzengeiger-Geyer, Sonja; Michaelowa, Axel; Köhler, Michel; Stadelmann, Martin

(November 2011)

 

Published by the Center for Comparative and International Studies (ETH Zurich and University of Zurich).

 

Leitet Herunterladen der Datei einMarket mechanisms for adaptation to climate change >>

Application of economic instruments for adaptation to climate change 
Final report

 

Bräuninger, Michael; Butzengeiger-Geyer, Sonja; Dlugolecki, Andrew; Hochrainer, Stefan; Köhler, Michel; Linnerooth-Bayer, Joanne; Mechler, Reinhard; Michaelowa, Axel; Schulze, Sven

(September 2011)

 

Hamburg.

 

Leitet Herunterladen der Datei einApplication of economic instruments >>

 

Accounting of private climate finance. Types of finance, data gaps and the 100 billion dollar question
Working paper

 

Stadelmann, Martin; Roberts, J. Timmons; Michaelowa, Axel

(August 2011)

 

Published by Climate Strategies, Cambrige.

 

Leitet Herunterladen der Datei einAccounting of private climate finance >>

 

How to enable the private sector to mitigate? Building capacity and creating an enabling environment for low-carbon business activities in developing countries
Working paper

 

Stadelmann, Martin; Michaelowa, Axel

(June 2011)

 

Published by Climate Strategies, Cambrige.

 

Leitet Herunterladen der Datei einHow to enable the private sector to mitigate >>

 

Design of the post-2012 climate regime: Sectoral approaches for greenhouse gas mitigation. Incentives for mitigation investments.
Discussion paper

 

Dransfeld, Björn; Michaelowa, Axel; Cames, Martin; Healy, Sean

(June 2011)

 

Published in Climate Change 14/11 by the Federal Environment Agency (Umweltbundesamt), Dessau-Rosslau.

 

Leitet Herunterladen der Datei einDesign of the post-2012 climate regime >>

 

Is there a leverage paradox in climate finance? Efficiency of the CDM and the GEF in leveraging funds and reducing CO2.
Working paper

 

Stadelmann, Martin; Castro, Paula; Michaelowa, Axel

(May 2011)

 

Published by Climate Strategies, Cambridge.

 

Leitet Herunterladen der Datei einIs there a leverage paradox in climate finance >>

 

Universal metrics to compare the effectiveness of climate change adaptation projects
Working paper

 

Stadelmann, Martin Stadelmann; Michaelowa, Axel; Butzengeiger-Geyer, Sonja; Köhler, Michel 

(April 2011)

 

Zurich.

 

Leitet Herunterladen der Datei einUniversal metrics to compare the effectiveness >>

 

Waking up the sleeping giant: How the new benchmark methodology can boost CDM in the building sector.
Article

 

Michaelowa, Axel; Hayashi, Daisuke

(2011)

 

Published in Trading Carbon Magazine, 5, 2011, p. 32-34

 

Leitet Herunterladen der Datei einWaking up the sleeping giant >>

 

Fragmentation of international climate policy – doom or boon for carbon markets?
Article

 

Michaelowa, Axel

(2011)

 

Published in Progressing towards post-2012 carbon markets, p. 13-24, by UNEP Riso Centre, Roskilde. 

 

Leitet Herunterladen der Datei einFragmentation of international climate policy >>

 

 

 

2010


Supported NAMA Design  Concept  for Energy-
Efficiency Measures in the Mexican  Residential Building Sector

Final Draft Working Paper

 

Daisuke Hayashi, Axel Michaelowa, Stefan Wehenr, Matthias Krey, Fernanda Gusmao, Nelson Sam

(November 2010)

 

Published by Point Carbon Global Advisory Services, Mexico City.

co-funded by the German Federal Environment Ministry under the CDM/JI Initiative

 

Supported NAMA Design  Concept  for Energy >>

PoA Blueprint Book
Guidebook for PoA coordinators under CDM/JI 2. Edition

 

Daisuke Hayashi, Axel Michaelowa, Björn Dranfeld, Marc André Marr, Nicolas Müller, Stefan Wehner, Matthias Krey 

(April 2010)

 

Published by the KfW Bankengruppe, Frankfurt am Main.

 

PoA Blueprint Book >>

 

Towards a more standardized approach to baselines and additionality under the CDM
Determining nationally appropriate performance standards and default factors

 

Daisuke Hayashi, Nicolas Müller, Sven Feige, Axel Michaelowa

(May 2010)

 

Commissioned by the UK Department for International Development.

 

CDM_standardized_approach_SPM >>

CDM_standardized_approach_Full report >>

CDM_standardized_approach_Building case >>

CDM_standardized_approach_Charcoal case >>

 

The Forum

The upset about international offsets

 

Axel Michaelowa, Derik Broekhoff, Laura H. Kosloff, Marti Spitzer, Michael Wara, Mark Trexler

(May/ June 2010)

 

Published by Environmental Law Insitute, Washington DC 

 

The upset about international offsets PDF Version >>

 

 

2009


Möglichkeiten und Grenzen der sektoralen Marktmechanismen in der internationalen Klimapolitik

 

Axel Michaelowa und Sonja Butzengeiger

(December 2009)

 

Published by Die Volkswirtschaft - das Magazin für Wirtschaftspolitik   

 

Leitet Herunterladen der Datei einMöglichkeiten und Grenzen der sektoralen Marktmechanismen >>

PoA Blueprint Book

A guidebook for PoA coordinators under CDM/JI  

 

Daisuke Hayashi, Axel Michaelowa, Björn Dransfeld, Mareike Niemann, Marc André Marr,Klaus Oppermann, Carolyn S. Neufeld,

(May 2009)

 

Commissioned by KfW Bankengruppe.

 

PoA blueprint book >>

 

 

2007


Understanding CDM Methodologies

A guidebook to CDM Rules and Procedures  

 

Axel Michaelowa, Frédéric Gagnon-Lebrun, Daisuke Hayashi, Luis Salgado Flores, Phlippe Crête, Matthias Krey

(November 2007)

 

Commissioned by the UK Department for Environment Food and Rural Affairs.

 

CDM Guidebook Perspectives_DEFRA 122007 >>