News 12/02/18

Understanding the status of negotiations on Art. 6.2 of the Paris Agreement

Perspectives and Climate Focus dissect COP 23's informal note on cooperative approaches under Art. 6.2 of the Paris Agreement. These negotiations see two camps - one wishing minimized international oversight, ideally limiting it to the accounting of ITMOs, and the other demanding international oversight comparable to that for the market mechanism under Art. 6.4. The Umbrella Group and Like-Minded Developing Countries but also AILAC support the former, Brazil, AOSIS and the EIG the latter. The EU and Canada take the middle ground with the demand for requirement to report on sustainable development and human rights. Room for compromise could be found regarding prevention of negative impacts on sustainable development and human rights, with mandatory reporting. Likewise, environmental integrity could be fostered by transparent reporting requirements. 


You can find the discussion paper here



News 08/02/18

New article on synergies between mitigation and SDGs

Axel Michaelowa, Matthias Krey and Samantha Wong discuss the role of Gross National Happiness for mitigation in urban areas in Bhutan. The article has been published in Mitigation Talks: A Series on Nationally Determined Contributions, edited by The Energy and Resources Institute (TERI). 


You can find the article here



News 06/02/2018

Matthias Honegger comments on new EASAC report

In a new report, the European Academies Science Advisory Council (EASAC) assesses the potential contribution of Negative Emissions Technologies (NETs). Perspectives' NETs expert Matthias Honegger comments on the timely report's findings.


You can find his contribution here (German only)



News 01/02/2018

Perspectives joins the Carbon Pricing Leadership Coalition (CPLC)

Perspectives Climate Group is happy to announce that it has joined the Carbon Pricing Leadership Coalition (CLPC) in late 2017. As a climate policy research and advisory group, we have been involved in promoting carbon pricing initiatives for fifteen years at different levels.


On the policy level, we have been heavily engaged in debates on carbon pricing under the Kyoto Protocol and later under the Paris Agreement through numerous academic and non-academic publications and participation in various international conferences, including most recently through Opens external link in new windowside events at COP23.


On a more technical level, we have been engaged in advising governments and the private sector on putting in place ambitious climate policies including carbon pricing initiatives. Specific issues related to carbon pricing that we have been working on include baselines and additionality of carbon crediting mechanisms, environmental integrity of emissions trading, carbon accounting and MRV of GHG emissions, to name only a few. We are therefore happy to join the Carbon Pricing Leadership Coalition (CPLC) and further contribute to putting in place meaningful carbon prices around the world.



News 23/11/2017

Guide for Negotiators of the COP23 Conference

This guidebook on the UNFCCC negotiations is an important reference and annually updated by IFDD in the run up to the COP. This year, several members of Perspectives including Axel Michaelowa, Matthias Honegger and Marjorie Menard contributed text on the negotiations regarding the market mechanisms under Art. 6 of the Paris Agreement, as well as rules for accounting and transparency of mitigation contribution.


Here are the Guidebook (ENG, FR) and the Summary for Policymakers (ENG, FR)



News 20/11/2017

Ensuring Additionality under Art. 6 of the Paris Agreement

Axel Michaelowa and Sonja Butzengeiger contribute a discussion paper in order to facilitate negotiations on the Paris Rule Book with a special emphasis on additionality testing. In order to build new carbon markets that are efficient and environmentally sound, they argue that states will have to go beyond improving existing mechanisms and that new mechanisms should be designed to support increasing NDC ambition. To this end, the authors offer an expanded and revised understanding of additionality, taking into account new scales of intervention, the conditional and unconditional components of NDCs, and by types of policy instrument. Within this new setting, additionality tests should be defined through methodologies approved by an Art. 6 Supervisory Board (A6SB) and implementation should be outsourced to governments. Ultimately, additionality tests will serve as the foundation of carbon markets and how climate finance will be used under the Paris Agreement.


You can find the discussion paper here




News 07/11/2017

Nuclear Power and Market Mechanisms under the Paris Agreement

Axel Michaelowa and Perspectives contributed to the preparation of a brochure for the IAEA that discusses the deployment of low-carbon nuclear power and how this might shape ongoing negotiations about market mechanisms under the Paris Agreement. It contributes to the debate about the role that nuclear power might play in climate change mitigation. The brochure argues that the market mechanisms in the Paris Agreement can help to ensure that the low cost abatement potential of nuclear power is best utilised to achieve the Agreement’s ambitious 2°C target provided that the main barriers faced by nuclear energy are addressed, particularly regarding safety and waste management. However, the flexibility of the Paris mechanisms can also ensure that the legitimate choice of some countries to forgo low cost nuclear power does not necessarily impose the burden of higher abatement costs on the global community. Therefore, if designed appropriately, the market mechanisms can ensure there are incentives for countries wanting to achieve additional abatement with nuclear power and foster international cooperation. 


You can find the IAEA brochure here



News 02/11/2017

Perspectives at COP23 in Bonn

Perspectives is contributing to COP23 with presentations on insights and innovations from our work on implementation of NDCs and the Paris Agreement, market mechanisms, carbon pricing instruments, adaptation and adaptation metrics, supporting low carbon development etc.


During the COP you can also find us at our joint booth with ClimateNet, University of Zurich and International Climate Dialogue in the Bonn Zone to discuss insights from our recent work.


Find the full list of Perspectives contributions to COP23 as well as details on the presence of Perspectives staff in Bonn here



News 18/10/2017

The Paris Market Mechanisms’ Contribution to Global Greenhouse Gas Mitigation: Complementarities and Tensions between Article 6.2 and Article 6.4

The volume builds on discussions that took place during the research workshop conducted by the Harvard Project in July, 2017 on the process of elaborating the Paris Agreement's Article 6. In his brief, Michaelowa argues that the availability of cheap mitigation options worldwide is a crucial avenue for enabling countries to increase the level of ambition of their NDCs given the bottom up nature of the Paris Agreement. Moreover, as it is likely that the Paris mechanisms will allow crediting on the scale of policy instruments or entire sectors, the author insists that one of the key tasks of negotiations will be how to frame additionality tests which, until this point, have been refined and made robust for specific projects and programs rather than policy instruments. The author also makes recommendations for how to ensure continuity of CDM rules and the stability of the CDM market under the Paris Agreement architecture. 


You can access the brief here and the full volume here



News 20/09/2017

Guardrails for the Paris mechanisms: Operationalizing Article 6 and generating carbon market credibility

The article outlines issues that need to be discussed at COP23 and COP24 to establish Article 6 market mechanisms as a cornerstone of the Paris Agreement regime. This issue is made more urgent as only 14 months remain to develop and approve the rulebook that operationalises these mechanisms. The authors insist these mechanisms should build on the lessons learnt from experiences with the Kyoto mechanisms. They stress the importance of international oversight, transparent accounting via a centralised registry, and robust and conservative additionality testing of policy instruments to enhance carbon market credibility. In addition, significant efforts are required to safeguard private sector trust and strengthen engagement to levels not seen since the early days of the CDM by transitioning eligible CDM activities into Article 6.4. The article concludes that in order to unlock real progress, concrete investments into pilot activities that test innovative carbon market approaches are called for.


You can access the analysis here


News 31/07/2017

“Cool Markets” for GHG Emission Reduction in a Warming World: Evaluation of World Bank Group’s Support to Carbon Finance 

Perspectives has supported the World Bank Group’s (WBG) Independent Evaluation Group in defining the approach for evaluating the carbon finance operations of the WBG. Carbon finance is part of general climate finance of the WBG and describes those operations that generate revenue streams from sale of project-based GHG emission reductions. It is the first comprehensive evaluation performed by the WBG to evaluate its carbon finance operations from the early 2000s up to current operations in light of the Paris Agreement. The evaluation will create an understanding of the WBG’s roles and contributions in the development and expansion of the carbon markets and will identify the drivers of success. The study will also generate guidance to inform future directions for carbon finance operations of the WBG. After finalizing the approach paper, the WBG – with support from Perspectives – is now in the process of planning the initial tasks to commence the evaluation work on the ground. 


You can access the approach paper here



News 04/07/2017

TABEK – Raising Transformative Ambitions - Contributions of Effective Climate Instruments

The project is funded by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research under grant no. 01LS1621A. The research grant is part of the programme on Contribution to the IPCC Special Report 1.5 degree warming (Beitrag zum IPCC Sonderbericht 1,5 Grad Erwärmung). The project is jointly carried out by Perspectives Climate Research gGmbH and the University of Freiburg (Department of Forest and Environmental Policy & Department of International Politics).


The overarching objective of the research project is to contribute to "transformation pathways and climate protection". Against the backdrop of the Paris Agreement, the project team examines how international climate policy instruments (e.g. crediting mechanisms) for emission reductions in developing countries may potentially contribute to raising ambitions in nationally determined contributions necessary for achieving the 1.5° C target. In a short and medium term perspective, mitigation contributions and transformation pathways of the Kyoto protocol mechanisms as well as forest protection approaches will be analyzed. In addition, the research project considers negative emissions technologies which may become increasingly important in a long term perspective.


The project duration lasts from 1 April 2017 to 31 December 2018.



News 26/06/2017

Linking the Clean Development Mechanism with the Green Climate Fund. Insights from Practitioners and Decision Makers in Africa

This publication collects perspectives from practitioners, decision makers and other key stakeholders in Africa on how to create an effective link between Green Climate Fund (GCF) and the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) to maximize financial support to mitigation activities in the continent. Study published by Perspectives, Climate Focus and Area Group.


You can access the report here.




News 16/05/2017

Perspectives, ClimateFocus and Koru Climate published study “Features and implications of NDCs for carbon markets”

The study discusses features and implications of countries’ nationally determined contributions (NDC) that will be of relevance for the design of the future carbon markets. Key areas the study addresses are the accounting of NDCs, the accounting of internationally transferred mitigation outcomes (ITMO) of Article 6.2, the generation and the environmental integrity of ITMOs. Finally a way forward and guidance are presented to support climate policy makers in the development of the future carbon market. The study has been developed on behalf of the Swedish Energy Agency (SEA), the Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation, Building and Nuclear Safety (BMUB) of Germany, and the Federal Office for the Environment (FOEN) of Switzerland.


Find the full study here.




News 11/05/2017

New publication on SD-benefits in market mechanisms

In collaboration with the greenwerk and South Pole, Perspectives analyzed the role sustainable development benefits play in the context of activities supported by future market mechanisms. After identifying the prospects of sustainable development benefits for future mechanisms, the report discusses potential barriers and provides guidance and recommendations for policy makers. The research project contributes to the public debate and aims at informing the ongoing negotiations on the future Paris mechanisms.


You can find the report here.




News 11/05/2017

CIF publication on the transitioning from INDCs to NDCs in Africa

The Paris Agreement requires all parties to transition their INDCs into NDCs. It is therefore relevant to shed light on the current (i)NDC transitioning and Paris Agreement ratification progress. Based on literature review and expert interviews with stakeholders from government, civil society and private sector, Perspectives examined where six focus countries stand - Cameroon, Ethiopia, South Africa, The Gambia, Tunisia and Uganda.


You can find the report here.




News 24/02/2017

Key lessons on climate-friendly waste NAMAs

On behalf of the German Environment Agency, Perspectives Climate Group organized a side event at the international waste fair IFAT in Munich 2016. International climate policy and waste management experts shared lessons learned from the implementation of waste sector projects. Key features of waste NAMAs such as the financing structure, the MRV system and the coordination of relevant stakeholders from ministries to the private sector and have been subject to vivid discussion during the half-day event. The full side event documentation including presentation material is available now.


You can find the documentation here.




News 08/12/2016

New Publication for the Climate Initiative for Development (Ci-Dev)

On behalf of the World Bank’s Carbon Initiative for Development, Perspectives Climate Research assessed the potential impact and risks of international climate policy developments on Ci-Dev's objectives. This included an assessment of the role of Intended Nationally Determined Contributions (INDC), Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions (NAMA), Low Emissions Development Strategies (LEDS) and related instruments in Ci-DEV implementing countries. We also present recommendations for addressing potential risks for Ci-Dev's operations as well as potential opportunities in a policy environment that is rapidly evolving on the international as well as the host country level.


You can find the study here.




News 25/11/2016

Design of climate policy worldwide

The Swiss Academies have published a report "Focus Climate Switzerland" describing the current state of research on why climate change is relevant for Switzerland. All Swiss authors in the 5th Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) have contributed to this report. Axel Michaelowa has co-authored the chapter on international and national mitigation policy instruments.




News 23/11/2016

Evaluating COP22 in Marrakech

GIZ invited Axel Michaelowa to report on the outcomes of the Marrakech COP at a workshop where the Vietnamese strategy for implementation of its Nationally Determined Contribution was unveiled. Michaelowa stressed the impact of Trump's election on international climate policy and the current leadership vacuum, which may be filled by China.




News 10/11/16

Perspectives has finalised a study on Cobenefits for UBA

Perspectives has elaborated a study on how inclusion of Cobenefits in the market mechanisms of the Paris Agreement can be ensured through elaborating appropriate guidance and rules for Articles 6.2 and 6.4 of the Agreement respectively, establishing pilot activities and creating synergetic approaches on assessing sustainable development contributions of activities enabled by market mechanisms with international efforts to operationalize Sustainable Development Goals. The study including an evaluation of the discourse and interests of various stakeholders in market mechanisms in the past an assessment of barriers and possible measures to overcome them, an orientation paper for prospective host country governments, as well as strategic recommendations on negotiations to the German government. The results of the study was presented at the COP22 EU Pavilion side event on Wednesday 9th of November at 10:30am with the title: Co-benefits and possible side effects of climate change mitigation.




News 04/11/2016

Green Climate Fund proposal support for Ethiopian sustainable cities programme

A programme covering composting, recycling and reuse of urban solid municipal waste, development of urban green spaces and pedestrian and cycling paths in 10 Ethiopian cities has been cast in a Green Climate Fund proposal template by Perspectives. It provides an innovative, yet appropriate approach integrating waste management, urban vegetation and appropriate transport. Both mitigation and adaptation benefits accrue. The programme belongs to a series of GCF proposals coordinated by the Ethiopian CRGE Facility. Perspectives' input was funded by the UK Department for International Development. 




News 04/11/16

Effects of the aviation market mechanism on the UAE

In a short study commissioned by the Emirates Diplomatic Academy, Axel Michaelowa has assessed the design of the market mechanism decided by the International Civil Aviation Organization at its Assembly in October 2016. This mechanism called CORSIA will kick in from 2021, and countries covering over 66% of international air traffic volume will participate.Michaelowa finds that UAE-based airline costs for acquiring offsets could reach up to a billion € by 2030 and that the UAE should assess whether it wants to prioritize acquiring offsets from CDM projects in the Gulf region.


You can access the Insight here.




News 03/11/2016

Cement NAMA in Vietnam

A cement sector NAMA for the Vietnamese Ministry of Construction has been finalized after three years. Perspectives, being part of a consortium, provided input regarding baseline development, assessment of marginal abatement cost of mitigation options and design of financing options. The NAMA, whose development was financed by the Nordic Environmental Finance Corporation (NEFCO) is an interesting candidate for piloting upscaled crediting under the Paris Agreement.




News 03/11/2016

Guide for negotiators for Marrakech Conference 

The French language guidebook on the UNFCCC negotiations is an important reference and annually updated in the run up to the COP. This year, Axel Michaelowa contributed text on the negotiations regarding the market mechanisms under Art. 6 of the Paris Agreement, as well as rules for accounting and transparency of mitigation contribution.

The guidebook is available here.




News 11/10/16

Perspectives' new concept notes together with EMENA Advisory 'Boosting climate action through innovative debt instruments' and 'Enhancing Green Bond Transparency through CDM'

The ambition level of the Paris Agreement requires a significant increase of climate finance flows from North to South. Innovative instruments have the potential to boost these flows by making available resources that were yet untapped. In our new concept note we suggest the use of the following three new instruments:

  • Debt for Climate Swaps
  • Environmental Policy Performance Bonds
  • Debt for Climate policy Performance Swaps

As exotic as these new instruments may sound, our concept note explains them in simple terms.


You can access the publication here.


Moreover, we just published a two paper on why the Green Bond market is in danger due to a lack of transparency and propose to use the strong methodological framework of the CDM to solve the problems.


You can access the Two-Pager here.




News 06/10/16

Perspectives' new publication together with ClimateFocus and Aera 'Linking the Clean Development Mechanism with the Green Climate Fund'

Linking the Green Climate Fund (GCF) and Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) is becoming increasingly important for policymakers and project developers. COP21 mandated the CDM Executive Board to investigate the links between market mechanisms and climate finance, in particular the GCF. During the intersessional UNFCCC negotiations in May 2016, the CDM Executive Board held an in-session workshop in which relevant initiatives were presented. Still, there is no common understanding of how such linkages could be operationalized. This study contributes to this debate by examining the compatibility of CDM activities with GCF investment criteria and the operational modalities of both institutions, as well as proposing specific conceptual linking models.

The study finds that linking GCF and high-quality CDM activities with scaling up potential results in mutual benefits:

  • Strengthening the results-orientation of the GCF by applying UNCCC-approved CDM MRV methodologies, thereby enhancing the transparency of verified mitigation outcomes.
  • Harnessing the mitigation potential of the CDM pipeline, which is at risk from low CER prices, with GCF resources.
  • Providing incentives for new private sector investments.
  • Providing bridge financing to support the transition from the current CDM to the new generation of Paris Agreement policy instruments without sacrificing lessons and human capacity built under the CDM.

The study develops six applied models for how the CDM can be used for GCF resource allocation. All models are based on the precondition that any issued CERs resulting directly from mitigation outcomes supported by the GCF would need to be cancelled in order to avoid so-called “double dipping”, i.e. receiving two sources of financial support for the same activity. This publication is part of a BMUB-supported project to strengthen the CDM pipeline in Africa, carried out by Climate Focus, Perspectives and AERA Group. The project also provides active support for identifying suitable pilot activities in Africa and enabling their access to climate finance. Furthermore, the project contributes to practical linkages between CDM and GCF at country level, as well as to the public debate on linking market mechanisms and climate finance.


You can access the publication here.




News 04/08/16

Axel Michaelowa elected member of the Initiative on Climate Action Transparency (ICAT)’s Technical Working Group for Transformational Change

As after Paris the national mitigation contributions need now to be implemented, Germany, Italy and other stakeholders have set up the Initiative on Climate Action Transparency (ICAT). It is to support over 20 developing countries to advance their NDCs by building a methodological framework to transparently measure and assess the impacts of climate policies. Specifying the nature of transformational change is critical in this context. Axel Michaelowa has been selected as expert member of the working group charged to provide Transformational Change guidance until December 2018. Given his 20 year experience in assessing climate policy instruments and additionality of mitigation action, Axel feels it is high time to move from high-flying terminologies to a somewhat more humble yet robust methodological approach, having dealt with the paradigm shift and transformational benefit approaches of the NAMA Facility and the GCF quite intensively over the last years.




News 16/06/2016

Perspectives and Germanwatch publish study “Investing in ambition, Analysis of the financial aspects in (Intended) Nationally Determined Contributions”

Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs) are a centrepiece of the Paris Agreement. In the briefing paper, Germanwatch and Perspectives analysed the financial aspects in the Intended Nationally Determined Contributions (INDCs). This includes a discussion on the types of conditions attached to some INDCs, on the role of market mechanisms and an assessment of the quantified costs and financial needs. However the financial needs identified in INDCs are difficult to compare due to the lack of clear guidance on how to include financial aspects in INDCs. Hence, the paper provides also an analysis of the currently existing challenges regarding the comparability of financial needs. Finally the paper discusses the need for comprehensive financing strategies for implementing NDCs and potential elements of such strategies.


Find the full study here.




News 30/05/2016

Publication of study on policy crediting undertaken for the World Bank at Carbon Expo

Crediting of policies is an approach to upscaled mitigation action that could play an increasingly important role. We are pleased to contribute to this important debate: At Carbon Expo 2016 Matthias Honegger presented a study that our team has undertaken for the World Bank Group, which analysed the potential of policy crediting for enabling carbon pricing policies such as reform of fossil fuel subsidies, carbon tax or a domestic trading scheme. International support though crediting of the mitigation outcomes can in some cases facilitate instituting or strengthening such pricing policies. Based on four country case studies of pricing reform, we have assessed whether potential revenues from such policy crediting could effectively enable host countries to introduce or strengthen carbon pricing instruments. While there are challenges for policy crediting, we recommend some specific areas for leveraging greater mitigation ambition: Support emissions reductions at the policy margin by e.g. purchasing allowances from an ETS to tighten the cap; easing the most affected stakeholders into pricing reform, by providing financial support for a transition phase; and reducing compliance costs of participants (e.g. MRV support or increase liquidity in ETS).


Read the full report here.




News 12/05/2016

Perspectives at the UNFCCC Meetings in Bonn and Carbon Expo 2016

Our team will be at the May 2016 Bonn meetings (SB44, SBSTA44 and APA1): Axel Michaelowa, Stephan Hoch, Alberto Galante and Matthias Honegger will be attending to observe how negotiations on work plans after Paris are shaping up and happy to meet with you to discuss ongoing or future collaborations. At Carbon Expo 2016 the Spanish, German and Swiss Perspectives offices will be represented at the German Pavilion and the Spanish Pavilion respectively. You are very welcome to join us at several events at which we will be speaking on linking of the carbon markets and climate finance including at the Green Climate Fund, opportunities to scale up crediting, implementing NDCs with market mechanisms and NAMAs, and the relevance of sustainable development co-benefits in the new Paris mechanisms.


The full list of events: Flyer




News 02/05/2016

Peru Waste Sector NAMA Phase I reports published

Perspectives is one of the key consultants for developing a solid waste programme in Peru, financed by the Nordic environment Finance Corporation (NEFCO) and the Nordic Partnership Initiative (NPI). The work has been carried out by Perspectives Climate Change in consortium with other companies and in close cooperation with the environmental Ministries and authorities of Peru. The 3-year long programme managed to achieve tangible results for a concrete financeable proposal for the NAMA in the Solid Waste Sector of Peru. The NAMA consisted in a national programme focused on municipal solid waste, e.g. household waste and waste from commercial activities. The outputs from this phase are published on NEFCO's website:


Further enquiries can be directed to:

Mr. Alberto Galante: galante (at)

Mr. Luca Lo Re: lore (at)




News 25/04/2016

Perspectives becomes member of the Climate Technology Centre and Network (CTCN)

Perspectives becomes member of the Climate Technology Centre and Network (CTCN). The CTCN was established by the COP16 in Cancun to help drive the transfer of climate technologies in developing countries. The Network provides technical assistance as well as creating access to information and knowledge on climate technologies aimed at mitigation and adaptation. The Network includes a growing number of regional and sectoral experts including academics, consultants and public and research institutions. Perspectives’ membership of the CTCN is based upon our expertise in climate mitigation and our track record of providing policy and technical support to a number of developing countries since 2003. This includes our work supporting national governments and regulators across Latin America, Africa and Asia. Membership will allow us to play a key role in information sharing and capacity building, providing technical assistance and participating in outreach and networking activities worldwide. More information on the work of the CTCN can be found at




News 14/04/2016

Perspectives designs the"NAMA Cement in Perú" and participates in its official presentation in Lima

Perspectives participated in the workshop organized by the Peruvian Government to present officially the NAMA Cement. The workshop was held on March 3, 2016 in Lima, Perú with participation of approximately 50 key stakeholders from the cement and other private sectors and key representatives from relevant ministries involved in the NAMA design. This workshop was an initial step to strengthen synergies and continue discussions in preparation for NAMA implementation. Perspectives contribution includes the technical assistance for the NAMA design and its participation in the official presentation highlighting the NAMA Cement in Perú within the context of the Paris Agreement, INDCs and international funding.

More information about this project can be found here:




News 09/02/2016

Perspectives celebrates opening of new office in Freiburg / Germany and growth into a group structure.

Following sustained growth of its business and team in 2015, Perspectives will open a new office in Freiburg/Germany in spring this year. 


Read further here.




News 03/02/2016

Perspectives identifies key design issues of new market mechanisms

Market mechanisms are important instruments for achieving cost-effective mitigation and the Paris Agreement has reinstated these as a cornerstone of international climate policy. Implemented correctly, they can increase flexibility and thus remove barriers to scaling up mitigation ambition. Perspective's work explores how existing mechanisms can be reformed and how new mechanisms can be designed with the dual objectives of achieving and increasing mitigation ambition while safeguarding environmental integrity. This includes action pre-2020 as well as the post-2020 operation of NDCs, Internationally Transferrable Mitigation Outcomes as well as the Sustainable Development Mechanism. Well-designed market mechanisms can play an important role in achieving rapid decarbonisation over the next decades. However, increasing mitigation ambition with market mechanisms requires sufficient trust regarding their integrity, a perspective for long-term existence, and practical user friendliness. Perspectives' recent study points out the key construction sites emerging from the Paris Agreement.


Find the study on design issues for new market mechanisms here.




News 18/12/2015

Perspectives' analysis of COP21

The 21st Conference of the Parties held 29th November to 12th of December in Paris has surpassed expectations in many ways and is seen by many as a breakthrough in international climate policy. In particular its reinforced level of ambition and strong provisions on market mechanisms are noteworthy. Now is the time to roll up the sleeves and get to work in order to put "flesh to the bones“ of the agreement.

Perspectives has analysed COP21 results in detail and made public an inital version on 14 December. Based on the comments received since then, our experts have further improved the analysis.


Find the enhanced analysis on the Paris Agreement here.




News 26/11/2015

Perspectives contributes to the Paris COP 

Perspectives contributes to the Paris COP with presentations on insights and innovations from our work on INDCs, results-based mitigation, future market-based instruments, GCF proposals, and much more.

During the COP you can also find us at our joint booth with ClimateNet, University of Zurich and ETH Zurich to discuss insights from our recent work on INDCs, Climate Finance (incl. GCF and NAMA Facility funding proposals), CDM-PoA, sectoral- and new market-based mechanisms, NAMAs all over the world, climate engineering, and many more topics pertinent to the Paris agreement.


Find the full list of Perspectives contributions to COP21 here




News 12/11/2015

First mitigation contribution of Saudi Arabia

Perspectives supported the government of Saudi Arabia in developing the differentiation of actions under the INDC (economic diversification and adaptation with mitigation cobenefits, pure adaptation). We also developed the concept of dynamic baseline that is adjusted ex post according to the development of key economic parameters, and the two scenarios of accelerated economic diversification and domestic industrialization. We assessed the potential of the various mitigation options for the period 2020 - 2030, which provided the basis for the government to specify a cumulated mitigation contribution of 130 million t CO2 equivalent.




News 11/11/2015

New paper by Perspectives: Can debt for climate swaps be a promising climate finance instrument? Lessons from the past and recommendations for the future

Debt for climate swaps have been discussed in literature as a potential source of climate finance. Such debt for climate swaps could build upon many years of experiences on debt for nature swaps. Hence, Perspectives discusses in this paper the concept of debt for climate swaps and describes lessons learned from debt for nature swaps for debt for climate swaps. Further, Perspectives discusses potential criteria which could be applied to identify priority candidates for debt for climate swaps.


The paper can be found here.




News 7/10/2015

Waste NAMA development in India

GIZ has retained Perspectives and adelphi to develop a NAMA to address India's burgeoning municipal solid waste problem. Over the next 18 months, Perspectives and its consortium partners will elaborate a suite of policy instruments to mobilize co-processing of waste by cement plants. Given that India has hitherto been reluctant to embrace the NAMA concept, this is an important initiative to  increase India's engagement in the international climate policy process.




News 24/9/2015

Perspectives contributes to the Webinar "Links between NAMAs & INDCs"

Perspectives' presentation was focused on the policy paper prepared for Costa Rica which overall objective was to support this Government in identifying and prioritizing a NAMA portfolio as a preliminary analysis to include this information in the Costa Rican INDC. The project was divided in two main activities: 1) Analysis of the current NAMA status in the country (including institutional framework and existing sectoral initiatives) and 2) Analysis of INDC’s structural and political elements, considerations, and formats. The Webinar was organized by the "International Partnership on Mitigation and MRV" in cooperation with the project "Global INDC Support Programme" implemented by GIZ.  Please check the link to access the webinar:




News 18/9/2015

Green Climate Fund financing in Ethiopia

Perspectives analyzed various options for greenhouse gas mitigation by Ethiopian industry and is supporting the Ministry of Industry in selecting the most promising ones that are developed into a funding proposal for the Green Climate Fund. It will focus on biomass use in the cement sector that is so far importing coal from South Africa.




News 10/9/2015

Perspectives contributes to LACCF 2015

Perspectives participates in the 2015 Latin American and Caribbean Carbon Forum (LACCF) held in Santiago de Chile from 09-11 September. During the Workshop 7: ‘MRV for Transparency and Accountability of Implementation of Mitigation Actions – Emerging Examples of LAC Countries’, Perspectives presented the MRV approach suggested for the project "NAMA Cement in Peru". Additionally, during the Plenary 7: ‘Results-Based Financing as a Cost Effective Tool for Closing the Pre-2050 Gap’, a representative from CAF talked about the methodology and main outcomes of the project developed by Perspectives "Sectoral Mitigation Scheme in the Waste Sector in Ecuador". The presentations can be found here: 




News 25/5/2015

Perspectives contributes to Carbon Expo 2015 

Our team is present at this years' Carbon Expo in Barcelona with two booths in the German and Spanish Pavilions.

In addition, we are contributing to and leading four side events on the potential role of the CDM in the new climate agreement; pilot activities for NMM; market mechanisms in INDCs and innovative approaches to linking of carbon markets and climate finance. 


Find the list of our side events Leitet Herunterladen der Datei einhere



News 2/4/2015

Can solar radiation management be governed in a credible way?

Financed by the Stanley Foundation,15 experts from North America and Europe assessed key questions of climate engineering governance, ranging from coordination of research, assessment of technological options, development of institutional capacity and finally regulation of eventual deployment. Perspectives framed the discussion and provided background documentation. The role of the UNFCCC and the ability of the IPCC to provide an unbiased assessment of the science on solar radiation management were the key issues raised by the participants.



News 12/12/2014

All NAMA proposals supported by Perspectives selected for the 2nd round of the NAMA Facility

Perspectives has supported two out of four NAMAs selected by the NAMA Facility in its second round of proposals out of over 40 applications. This means that all NAMA proposals supported by Perspectives have been selected in this round. The Peruvian TransPeru NAMA supports integrated transport development in the metropolitan region of Lima/Callao, whereas the Burkina Faso NAMA aims to reduce over 3.6 million t CO2 by increasing the efficiency of biomass production and use. During 2015, these NAMA proposals will be developed into full-fledged NAMAs fit for implementation.




News 1/12/2014

Perspectives contributes to COP 20 in Lima 

Our team is contributing to and leading 8 side events at the 20th Conference of the Parties in Lima. The topics addressed will be: NAMA successes in Latin America, the Maghreb and sub-saharan Africa, lessons for the GCF from the Climate Investment Funds and climate finance research, opportunities from linking PoA and NAMA, transport NAMAs MRV approaches, and the INDC definition process in developing countries. We are looking forward to discussing these emerging issues in the international climate policy landscape with you. Recent publications are showcased at the exhibits of ClimateNet (1st week) and University of Zurich (2nd week). 



News 5/9/2014

From CDM to NAMAs: Presentation of research findings at LACF

Alberto Galante, the Director of Latin American Markets at Perspectives, attends the Latin American Carbon Forum (LACF) from 3 to 5 September and will contribute to the workshop on “From CDM to NAMAs: Opportunities to Accelerate Sustainable Development and Contribute Towards Global Mitigation Efforts” by sharing project and research findings from Perspectives' broad CDM and NAMA experience with the international audience.



News 20/8/2014

Governing climate engineering through the UNFCCC?

At the "Climate Engineering Conference 2014" in Berlin, Matthias Honegger convened a session "Climate Engineering Governance – is the Climate Convention the Right Place for It?" where leading researchers Dan Bodansky (US), Chen Ying (China), Clive Hamilton (Australia) and Axel Michaelowa discussed the role of the UNFCCC in overseeing climate engineering. In a lively lunchtime discussion "The politics of climate engineering", 100 participants engaged with Matthias, Axel as well as Olaf Cory and Duncan McLaren (both UK).



News 18/8/2014

Renewable energy NAMA guide to be updated

Following the success of the 1st edition, which was downloaded over 50,000 times, the International Renewable Energy Agency has asked Perspectives to update its NAMA handbook for renewable energy. The 2nd edition will be unveiled at COP 20 in Lima. It will feature case studies of concrete renewables NAMAs in Chile, Tunisia and Mexico.



News 10/8/2014

How can NAMAs and PoAs coexist?

On behalf of UNEP DTU, Perspectives has analyzed how to attribute emissions reductions from an ongoing PoA that is "nested" in a NAMA. We also discuss options for allocation of NAMA financing to PoA and NAMA activities.To ensure that services and products are delivered in a cost-effective manner under a NAMA based on PoA activities results-based incentives are critical.



News 24/6/2014

Perspectives finalises 3-years study for ICI on climate finance & suppressed demand

With support of the German Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation, Building and Nuclear Safety (BMUB), The Gold Standard Foundation along with Perspectives, SouthSouthNorth Africa and NIRAS recently completed a three-year programme of work to help poorer nations access climate finance.


The aim was to lower transaction costs, facilitate investment and make a real, and lasting, difference to the local communities in which projects are developed. Differences such as access to energy, clean water and education, job creation, and health improvements through cleaner methods of cooking and cleaner air.


A key deliverable was to define how policy should support these efforts. This policy brief, “Suppressed demand: A new climate finance approach to avoid carbon lock-in and deliver clean development to the world’s poorest communities” summarises our position on how environmental finance can go further to reach those who need it most.


The collective work illustrates just what can be achieved with the right policy frameworks and support. It proves the best practice approaches to tackling climate change, poverty and development as one interconnected problem. And it shows how climate finance, applied holistically, can make a meaningful difference in people’s lives.


Read the Climate Policy Brief here:



News 5/5/2014

Perspectives opens new office in Spain and Axel Michaelowa becoming Managing Director

Perspectives GmbH has opened a new office in Alicante, Spain. The office will be headed by Alberto Galante, a NAMA and climate policy expert having worked for Perspectives since early 2011. The office opening marks the completion of a restructuring process of the company initiated in early 2013. Perspectives’ Senior Founding Partner Dr. Axel Michaelowa is taking over the role of the Managing Director from Sonja Butzengeiger-Geyer, who is moving to Austria for private reasons. Marc Andre Marr, who has successfully developed and headed Perspectives’ NAMA and CDM business in the past years, will leave the company end of May for pursuing new opportunities outside the carbon market.


The full press release in English can be downloaded Leitet Herunterladen der Datei einhere.

The full press release in Spanish can be downloaded Leitet Herunterladen der Datei einhere.



News 10/4/2014

Interview with Dr. Axel Michaelowa on implications of carbon market crash

Early April 2014, the Joint Implementation Quarterly - an independent magazine with background information about the Kyoto mechanisms, emissions trading, and other climate policy issues - published an interview with Dr. Axel Michaelowa on progress made in international climate policies over the past two decades and the challenges ahead of us.

The article can be downloaded Leitet Herunterladen der Datei einhere.




News 26/3/2014

Perspectives works on a Cement NAMA in Vietnam

The Nordic Partnership Initiative on up-scaled climate change mitigation action and the Vietnamese Government have decided to implement a Pilot Programme for NAMA preparation and NAMA financing in the national cement sector. The overall objective is to prepare and implement a full-scale mitigation scheme in the form of a clearly specified NAMA. Perspectives has been assigned as part of a wider consortium to support the design and develop of this Pilot NAMA. The work to be conducted includes at first the development of an overview of relevant policies, processes, initiatives and stakeholders, the development of baseline emission trends for the cement sector, and furthermore the setting up of a sector-level MRV system of international standard, the assessment of the mitigation potential, its costs, barriers and policy options, the design of a conceptual framework for the design of a NAMA, the identification of potential national and international financial resources, and finally the interaction with stakeholder including the provision of training and capacity building. The overall project duration is 24 months. The finalization of the project is expected in early 2016.  



News 10/2/2014

NAMA idea development for Egyptian NAMA Support Programme

Perspectives has jointly with the Egyptian-German Joint Committee on Renewable Energy, Energy Efficiency, and Environmental Protection (JCEE) in Egypt conducted a serious of workshops and stakeholder meeting to identify most promising activities in Egypt to be developed as National Appropriate Mitigation Actions (NAMAs). A first joint workshop under JCEE’s NAMA Support Programme with representatives of key sectors was held in early March 2013. The objective of the programme was to identify and further specify potential NAMA ideas in different sectors and to formulate corresponding idea notes. For this purpose several sectoral workshops were held with individual organizations/ministries/institutions representing the power (renewable energies), tourism (green tourism), industry (co-generation) and water (irrigation pumping) sector. The final NAMA ideas were developed jointly in the workshops supported by Perspectives and were finalized early 2014.  Perspectives provided throughout the programme latest know-how on NAMAs (function of NAMAs and how Egypt may benefit from it), explained what the necessary steps are and what information is needed to develop a successful NAMA.




Gulf countries' mitigation action

At a side event co-hosted by the government of Qatar and ClimateNet, Perspectives highlighted significant mitigation potential as well as substantial ambition in various sectors of GCC countries' economies. In ordert to close the growing gap between global mitigation actions and mitigation needed for the 2° target

GCC countries could contribute to a positive dynamics by making pledges in the run up to the Paris Conference in 2015.




NAMA guidance presented at Warsaw COP

A large audience participated in the launch of the NAMA guidance whose preparation had been assigned to Perspectives by the UNFCCC Secretariat and which subsequently was also supported by UNEP and UNDP. The guidance is aimed at governments and other institutions who want to embark on a NAMA; it is available Öffnet externen Link in neuem Fensterhere.




Perspectives earns approval of the first standardized baseline

At the 73rd CDM Executive Board meeting, the first two standardised baselines (SB) were approved; this was an event that is helping to revolutionize the CDM. SBs allow for baselines and additionality to be established on a sectoral level instead of the traditional project level; this results in significant simplification of the process to establish baseline emissions and to demonstrate additionality. Perspectives was the author of the SB for sustainable charcoal production in Uganda. The production of unsustainable charcoal results in significant greenhouse gas emissions and deforestation, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa. The SB and the related approved small scale methodology, always written by Perspectives, allow for significant simplification of the process to earn carbon credits from producing sustainable charcoal in Uganda.



PoA Calculation Tool now available for financial assessment of planned PoAs

The PoA Calculation Tool is part of an update of the PoA BLUEPRINT BOOK developed by Perspectives on behalf of KfW. The tool enables the user to conduct a financial assessment of eight different technologies in the context of a PoA or single CDM project. The tool offers the opportunity to run Internal Rate of Return (IRR) and/or Net Present Value (NPV) analysis in order to evaluate the financial viability of a project activity. The analysis is based on estimated specific technology costs and CDM-related transactions costs. The tool allows for estimation of the costs of capital (cost of finance), which can be compared to the IRR, in order to evaluate programme’s bankability. The tool is now Öffnet internen Link im aktuellen Fensteravailable for download.



PoA Information and Assistance Platform

KfW together with South Pole Carbon and Perspectives Climate Change has launched the PoA Information and Assistance Platform. The web-based Platform aims at addressing the most crucial needs of developers and implementers of CDM Programmes of Activities (PoAs). It provides ample resources on PoAs and a Q&A section in which experts from South Pole and Perspectives respond to stakeholders’ enquiries. The Q&A section features indexed and thematically sorted discussion threads for easy reference. A series of webinars will be conducted, covering the most important aspects of PoA development, implementation and management.


Please join us for the first webinar: “Getting started with PoAs and introduction to the KfW PoA platform”, June 11, 2013; 10am CET.


The PoA Information and Assistance Platform has been commissioned by KfW under the PoA Support Centre Germany, which is funded by the German Ministry for the Environment. The Platform is managed by South Pole Carbon and Perspectives Climate Change. Please visit us on Öffnet externen Link in neuem



Perspectives GmbH - New management team to continue driving business growth and diversification in carbon markets and climate policy advice

Perspectives GmbH has implemented a new management team to continue driving growth after the departure of existing CEO, Matthias Krey. Co-founder Sonja Butzengeiger remains in the role of Managing Director, while Marc André Marr, Killian Wentrup and David Lunsford, all recruited from the existing team, step into the newly-created roles as Directors.

Leitet Herunterladen der Datei einPress Release PDF



Standardizing the Grid-Emissions Factor for grid-connected renewable electricity CDM Projects in Ethiopia

Current existing CDM methodologies render renewable grid-connected CDM projects infeasible in Ethiopia, as the low grid emission factor (GEF) does not yield carbon credits due to a hydro dominated power generation. For the Strategic Climate Institutions Programme (SCIP) funded by UK's Department for International Development (DFID), Perspectives will use the CDM ‘standardization’ reform process to achieve a more favourable standardization, e.g. standardized baseline (SBL), for grid-connected renewable electricity generation and efficiency projects in Ethiopia.  A standardized GEF will generate greater CDM incentives for project developers in Ethiopia. Hence, the project will also support outreach activities to promote visibility and awareness for these new CDM opportunities in order to fast-track implementation. The project, furthermore, strengthens Ethiopian Environmental Protection Authority’s (EPA) institutional capacity, as the Ethiopian DNA, to further assess and submit additional SBLs for other project types.



Perspectives is developing strategies for carbon market development in African LDCs

Under this initiative by the BMU, Perspectives and its partners develop practical approaches and strategies, which shall enable sustainable development in LDCs of sub-Saharan Africa through increased participation in the carbon markets. To reach this goal, the project ‘Strategies for carbon market development in African Least Developed Countries (LDCs)’ will investigate requirements and demands on the institutional structure, the processes for data collection and the application of standardized baselines (SBL), in order to formulate strategies that facilitate the development and the practical applicability of SBLs. National and regional capacities shall also be strengthened in order to promote this implementation.

The project will focus primarily on rural electrification. In consultation with the BMU, the implementing organizations, and the Ethiopian Environmental Protection Authority, Ethiopia has been selected as the focus country of this project. The case study of Ethiopia shall however be representative and transferable to other countries in the region. The overarching objective of the project is to enable African LDCs greater access to carbon markets. The primary objectives include to:
• Identify existing knowledge gaps and develop strategies to overcome these gaps
• Develop an advisory tool comprising recommendations, e.g. on how to formulate SBLs and the corresponding data management requirements
• Formulate recommendations for the practical applicability of standardised CDM methodologies in the target sector, i.e. rural electrification.


Publication of UNDP Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Action (NAMA) study on Sustainable Charcoal in Uganda

The Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Action (NAMA) study on Sustainable Charcoal in Uganda provides a basis for the design of a NAMA which would convert Uganda’s charcoal value chain into a sustainable value chain. The NAMA study provides background information about charcoal in Uganda and focuses on the charcoal production component of the value chain; the study provides recommendations on topics such as which improved kilns may be appropriate to use in Uganda and how an efficient labeling and transport system could be implemented. The report is available hereÖffnet externen Link in neuem Fenster




Perspectives successfully registered PoAs in Asia, Africa and Latin America

Perspectives is globally active on supporting public and private clients in identifying, designing, devoloping and managing Programme of Activities (PoAs). We are active globally and our PoAs are based in Asia, Africa and Latin America. In terms of technologies the PoAs range from renewable energies (wind, solar, hydro), efficient cook stoves, fuel switch, energy efficiency for buildings, bioenergy and wastewater-treatment plants.  Perspectives is currently involved in 13 PoAs. Four (4) PoAs are already registered under the UNFCCC. One of the PoAs even spreads over 4 countries (Egypt, Lebanon, Morocco, Tunisia) and involves multiple technologies. Beside those registered PoAs further 7 are currently requesting registration.



First African large-scale PoA registered under UNFCCC


Within our Carbon Project Service team Perspectives is supporting public and private institutions all over the world in developing and managing Programme of Activities (PoA). The PoA concept  helps reducing CDM transaction costs and provide a operational framework for project developers to benefit from CDM revenues in the future and enable the implementation of projects that lead to emission reductions.

The CDM PoA "South Africa Wind Energy" that Perspectives has developed on behalf of Mabanaft Carbon B.V. and that was registered under UNFCCC dated 14. September 2012 (UNFCCC Reference 6734) is the first ever large-scale CDM PoA on the African continent. The objective of the South Africa Wind Energy PoA is to increase the supply of renewable energy to the South African national grid from renewable wind energy resources on a commercially sustainable basis. The PoA will provide a platform for wind energy project developers to overcome existing barriers through additional cash-flow from carbon revenues. The Coordinating & Managing Entity, Mabanaft Carbon B.V, will take care of the CDM cycle.



GIZ NAMA Technical Sourcebook

Perspectives, along with partner adelphi, recently completed a NAMA sourcebook for GIZ. The “Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions – A Technical Assistance Sourcebook for Practitioners” provides a wealth of information about NAMAs. The Sourcebook has a strong focus on learning from GIZ experience and on providing users with practical information. The publication is available at: %E2%80%93-technical-assistance-sourcebook-practitioners



Study on role of technology providers under future CDM/JI

Perspectives has conducted a study on the “Success factors and barriers for technology providers in CDM and JI markets” for the German Federal Environment Agency. The study draws a picture of the current participation and future possibilities of German technology providers in CDM/JI projects and analyzes 9 technologies in detail. Find the study at




Perspectives conducted update of  German DNA CDM pages

The German DNA (Deutsche Emissionshandelsstelle DEHSt) has assigned Perspectives with an overhaul of its CDM website. Over the past months Perspectives developed a more comprehensive and up to date concept for the CDM pages. The Website now holds information on the CDM rules and procedures, project development, specific project types, the CDM post 2012, host countries and support and financing of CDM activities.



Perspectives strengthening its activities and presence in Latin America and the Caribbean

With working experience in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) going back to 2005, Perspectives has gained top-level understanding of climate change issues in the region.

Perspectives work in LAC includes over 25 CDM Project and Programme of Activities (PoA) Management assignments, CDM Risk Assessments, CDM Feasibility Studies and CDM due diligence in several countries, i.e. Argentina, Chile, Colombia, Mexico, El Salvador, Panama, Peru, Brazil, Honduras or Trinidad & Tobago.

Moreover, Perspectives contributed to the well-known KfW PoA Blueprint Book. The Spanish translation of this guidebook has been published to provide project owners and project developers in LAC with examples for the development of programmatic approaches under the CDM.

Currently, Perspectives is involved in the development of a WholeHouseApproach NAMA for Mexico, a programm of Activities in the field of renewable energies in Peru and a number of CDM project activities i.a. in Chile and Panama.

To further strengthen our activities and presence in LAC, Perspectives has recently signed a collaboration agreement with ECO Consultorías e Ingeniería S.A.C. (ECI), a Peruvian company that promotes simple and eco-efficient environmental solutions, especially for projects related to solid waste, wastewater treatment and renewable energy. ECI is a perfect match for Perspectives, as it offers technical knowledge, local staff and offices in LAC. As a first collaboration under the agreement, Perspectives conducted a workshop on NAMAs in Lima, co-organized by National Institutions.



First ever proposal to establish a standardized baseline submitted to the UNFCCC

On behalf of Green Resources AS, Perspectives developed and submitted a proposal to establish a standardized baseline for the charcoal sector. The objective of the proposal is to offer a simpler and more objective quantification of emission reductions and demonstration of additionality for projects which reduce GHG emissions associated with the charcoal production in LDCs and LICs. The switch to a more sustainable production of charcoal is one of the most promising project types in LDCs and LICs. So far, the high efforts/costs required for each individual project has prevented the mobilization of such projects. The standardized baseline, if accepted, could slash transaction cost and time required to develop projects by offering default values for baseline emission calculations. In conjunction with recently proposed default factors for the fraction of non-renewable biomass (fNRB), sustainable charcoal projects could achieve an extreme level of simplicity with predictable CER revenues calculated proportionally to published default values.
A first CDM methodology based on this proposed standardized baseline and developed by Perspectives on behalf of the UK Department for International Development (DFID) is to be submitted to the Meth Panel this month.



Standardized approaches to determine the proportion of non-renewable biomass under the CDM in Sub-Saharan Africa

Perspectives is implementing a project under the German Ministry of Environment funded International Climate Initiative to improve the approach to determine the fraction of non-renewable biomass (fNRB). The objective of the project is to have a standardized approach for determining the fraction of non-renewable biomass (fNRB) in a way that it can be easily applied for CDM projects and PoAs, while still maintaining the environmental integrity. CDM projects applying the fNRB value are mainly projects with a high contribution to sustainable development - e.g. improved cookstoves, biogas digesters and water purification systems. These projects are also highly replicable and important in least developed countries and small island developing states. Currently the determination of fNRB have been a barrier for such project types due to lacking guidelines and high efforts/costs required to determine fNRB for each individual project (i.e. due to lack of data).  With this project, Perspectives in collaboration with South Pole will assess standardized approaches for determining the fNRB, test case those approaches and develop according guidelines and undertake necessary methodological work.



Multi-country cook stove PoAs in Sub-Saharan Africa

Perspectives and South Pole are supporting Envirofit International in the development of two multi-country efficient cooking stove PoAs.The PoAs involve the distribution of Envirofit's range of high efficiency charcoal and wood cooking stoves to replace the existing cooking stoves still used by up to 80% of households in most Sub-Saharan African countries. These traditional stoves include the so-called "three stone fire" and simple charcoal stoves which are inefficient in the conversion of woody biomass to energy and lead to severe health impacts as a result of indoor air pollution. The distribution of efficient stoves will start in Kenya and South Africa for the first PoA, and Ghana and Nigeria for the second, with expansion to other Sub-Saharan African countries also foreseen. Social benefits resulting from the PoAs will include job creation in the distribution and retailing of stoves, as well as manufacturing in certain countries. In Kenya, Envirofit is establishing a stove assembly plant to supply the East African market. The PoAs are to be managed/coordinated by Envirofit, with CPAs to be implemented by local partners in each of the countries. Perspectives is providing advice on the design and implementation of the PoAs, developing the CDM documentation and managing the PoAs through to registration along with its partner South Pole. Key elements of this work include baseline establishment, development of a Monitoring Plan, including a Sampling Plan to meet the recently approved Standard for Sampling and Surveys, the development of Eligibility Criteria for CPAs and obtaining Letters of Approval from multiple DNAs. The PoAs are being developed using approved methodology AMS II G v3.



Book "Carbon market or climate finance" released

The book published by Routledge features contributions by Perspectives Staff Sonja Butzengeiger, Björn Dransfeld, Michel Köhler and Stefan Wehner. Experiences with the CDM and the Adaptation Fund, as well as development assistance are evaluated. An outlook is provided of how climate finance in developing countries could develop, both through markets and innovative instruments such as dedicated bonds or levies on novel technologies.

Until end of March 2012 a 20% discount on the cover price can be obtained by ordering the book through using the discount code CMCF11.   




Perspectives launches Climate Policy Paper series

Perspectives, in cooperation with the Fridtjof Nansen Institute (FNI), proudly presents FNI Climate Policy Perspectives - a new series of climate policy briefing papers. Each paper looks at hot climate policy issues and aims to provide new policy ideas.


First three papers are now available here:

Japan After the Quake: Prospects for Climate Policy
By Alexandru Luta
October 2011

Dangers of the Endgame: Engaging Russia and Ukraine during the Gap
By Anna Korppoo and Olga Gassan-zade
November 2011

Driving Meaningful Adaptation Action through an Adaptation Market Mechanism
By Sonja Butzengeiger-Geyer, Michel Köhler and Axel Michaelowa
November 2011

We would also invite you to sign up to our emailing list to receive updates of the publication of future papers. If you are interested, please send an email to herms [AT]


Promoting standardised approaches in the CDM

Perspectives together with SouthPole, Pöyry and GERES successfully completed a study commissioned by the Department for International Development (DFID), UK, on piloting greater use of standardised approaches in the CDM. The study demonstrates on a practical level how standardised approaches can streamline both baseline calculation and additionality demonstration and improve access to the CDM for currently underrepresented countries and project types. A first phase of the project identified project types with a high relevance to LDCs and promising potential for standardisation. A second phase of the study developed methodologies based on a standardised approach for three project types: (i) water purification; (ii) efficient charcoal production; and (iii) rural electrification. In total, nine country specific case studies (three per methodology) have assessed the effectiveness as well as the practicability of the approaches, especially with regard to national circumstances. The project outputs include fully drafted methodologies, methodology justification documents, study reports with key findings and country-specific case studies. Among the methodologies developed by the project team, one has been merged with an existing methodology and was approved as AMS.III.AV. The proposed "Baseline methodology for electrification of rural communities" is presently being reviewed by the Small-Scale Working group. Two further methodologies for charcoal - one for the use of carbon neutral biomass (biomass plantation, waste biomass) and another for an improved conversion process - could be submitted before the end of the year.

Piloting greater use of standardised approaches in the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM)

Demonstrating how standardised approaches can improve access to the CDM for currently underrepresented countries and project types.


Nicolas Müller, Randall Spalding-Fecher, Samuel Bryan, William Battye, Anja Kollmuss, Christoph Sutter, Sophie Tison, Francis Yamba, Anna Strom, Daisuke Hayashi, Axel Michaelowa, Marc André Marr. (September 2011)


Commissioned by the UK Department for International Development.


All study reports:

Leitet Herunterladen der Datei einPiloting greater use of standardised approaches in the CDM SPM PDF Version >>

Leitet Herunterladen der Datei einPiloting greater use of standardised approaches in the CDM Phase 1 report PDF >>

Leitet Herunterladen der Datei einPiloting greater use of standardised approaches in the CDM Phase 2 report PDF >>


Developed CDM Methodologies based on a standardised approach:


Water purification:

Low greenhouse gas emitting water purification systems >>

(Approved small-scale methodology; consolidated with previous versions)

Low greenhouse gas emitting water purification systems - Meth justification document >>


Charcoal production:

Leitet Herunterladen der Datei einStandardised methodology for the production of sustainable charcoal and briquettes - complete >>

Leitet Herunterladen der Datei einStandardised methodology for the production of sustainable charcoal and briquettes - fast track >>

Leitet Herunterladen der Datei einStandardised methodology for the production of sustainable charcoal and briquettes - Meth justification document >>

(Draft methodology - this methodology has not yet been approved by the UNFCCC)

Leitet Herunterladen der Datei einLow GHG charcoal production >>

Leitet Herunterladen der Datei einLow GHG charcoal production - Meth justification document >>

(Draft Methodology - this methodology has not yet been approved by the UNFCCC)


Rural electrification:

Baseline methodology for electrification of rural communities >>

(Methodology submitted to the UNFCCC but not yet approved)

Baseline methodology for electrification of rural communities - Meth justification document >>




Supercritical coal power plant in India registered

Perspectives supported Reliance Power, Ltd, India, in preparing the CDM documentation for a large supercritical power plant on India´s eastern coast. This project was registered without a hiccup as UNFCCC no. 4533. Given that several similar projects have been reviewed and rejected, our emphasis on a credible additionality test paid off. The plant is likely to start operation in 2015; annual CER volume is estimated at 1.2 million.       




First large-scale buildings efficiency CDM methodology approved

After two years of painstaking work for Perspectives' experts with five rounds of interaction with the CDM regulators, the first large-scale methodology for energy efficiency in the building sector has been approved by the EB as AM0091  "Energy efficiency technologies and fuel switching in new buildings". The methodology, which was developed for Masdar (Abu Dhabi), uses an innovative benchmark approach. Additionality testing that has so far been a major obstacle for building projects in the CDM is thus not necessary. The benchmark, which is set at the level of the 20% best buildingsconstructed in the municipality in the last 5 years, is calculated in a  whole-building approach that simplifies monitoring. Compared to the small-scale buildings efficiency methodologies approved so far, AM0091 has a far wider applicability, making it attractivefor large-scale greenfield urban developments. This was achieved by a comprehensive buildings classification. AM0091 also is nicely applicable for PoAs.       




BMU funds intensive work on suppressed demand

The Gold Standaard Foundation along with Perspectives, SouthSouthNord and NIRAS has just started an exciting three-years programme as part of the International Climate Initiative. The German Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety (BMU) supports this initiative on the basis of a decision adopted by the German Bundestag. The proposed programme aims to enable both innovation and institutional preparation in targeted regions. The programme's key activities are: improved guidelines for programmes of activities (PoAs); new methodologies addressing suppressed demand; simplified methodologies for micro-scale projects; institutional capacity building in collaboration with Designated National Authorities (DNAs) and auditors; and building entrepreneurial capacity amongst project proponents. Within this programme Perspectives is managing the work on suppressed demand. The deliverables of this work that is being conducted together with SouthSouthNord and NIRAS include a stakeholder workshop at the African Carbon Forum in Marrakesh, the development of 2 Gold Standard methodologies on suppressed demand and one micro-scale methodology, the development ob web-based emission reduction tools addressing suppressed demand and the development and publication of suppressed demand Blueprint Book.      




Perspectives acquired in management buy-out

Perspectives GmbH has just completed a management buyout from its former parent corporation, Thomson Reuters Point Carbon, and is now fully independent. For more background information please read the following background note. The press release can be found here.



Perspectives supporting the UNFCCC

Due to our long-term and successful references in CDM methodology development Perspectives has supported UNFCCC in the final development of the recently published CDM Methodology Booklet. The Booklet is designed to guide users through the complex world of CDM methodologies. By clearly summarizing, classifying and illustrating the methodologies available under the CDM, and then enhancing the means by which to search those methodologies, this publication serves to guide potential CDM project participants. The following link leads directly to the Booklet:




CDM Project Management in Central America

The project is in the renewable energy sector and will be implemented in Panama. Perspectives will closely work together with a local partner and is resonsible for all CDM related tasks starting from PDD development, Grid Emission Factor determination, as well as validation and registration support.




CDM Project Registration in Chile

Perspectives has successfully supported SNPower in managing the CDM Project for the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions of Hidroelectrica La Confluencia S.A. until CDM registration. With this registration Perspectives has managed 12 CDM Projects successfully until registration. The Project consists of the construction of a 163 MW run of river hydropower facility to generate and supply zero emission energy to the Chilean Central electricity grid (SIC). The Project will deliver an average of 656 GWhel p.a. into the SIC. The Project will generate certified emission reductions (CERs) by displacing electricity generation from grid connected fossil fuel-fired power plants that would otherwise be generating electricity. 



PoA presentation at 7th Austrian JI/CDM Workshop

Perspectives analyses and develops recommendations for a transition phase for During the Session IV "360°-view on JI/CDM Projects" of the 7th Austrian JI/CDM Workshop on Friday 21st of January, Perspectives will present on lessons learnt from some of the various PoA activities Perspectives has been involved in so far.




CFL Project won the UNFCCC /CDM photo contest

The photo shows the women working to replace conventional bulbs with energy-efficient lighting in domestic households in the state of Visakhapatnam in India. Follow the link to see the picture and other awarded pictures:



Study on post-2012 market mechanisms

Perspectives analyses and develops recommendations for a transition phase for post-2012 carbon market mechanisms and flexible interim solutions for the German Federal Environment Agency. Transitionary options like upgraded PoAs or standardized baselines may bridge the gap until potential post-2012 market mechanisms are operational. These options are evaluated according to selected criteria. Additionally, new interim-approaches are designed. The results will be elaborated in parallel to international negotiations and reflect the dynamic development of the climate policy regime. Perspectives works in cooperation with Uni Zurich and Ecologic Institute to deliver a valuable and supportive hands-on approach based on latest decisions and developments.



CDM Methodology Booklet launched

A CDM Methodology Booklet, prepared by UNFCCC and reviewed by Perspectives, has officially been launched. The booklet summarizes each approved methodology in one page, using an intuitive diagrammatic representation of key methodological components. The booklet is intended to facilitate the initial screening of methodologies that are suitable for your CDM project idea. The booklet is available on the UNFCCC website [here].



New Assignment on JI potential in agriculture

Perspectives has been contracted by the German Federal Environment Agency to assess the potential for JI projects in the agriculture sector in Germany. The assignment comprises the identification of measures to reduce emissions in agricultural fertilization with a focus on N2O emissions. Potential measures will be analyzed regarding their general JI feasibility and methodological challenges of the respective options under the JI framework. Perspectives has teamed up with the Leibniz-Zentrum für Agrarlandschaftsforschung (ZALF) e. V., a think tank specialized in agricultural research.



New issue of "CDM Highlights" published

A new issue of the GTZ newsletter "CDM Highlights" was published recently. The newsletter, which is co-edited by Perspectives Climate Change,  provides carbon market news for the development community with a focus on the CDM and is published by the GTZ Climate Protection Programme on behalf of BMZ. The recent issue is available [here].



Project Finance Trainging course  to UNFCCC 

Perspectives provides a series of training workshops on project finance to the UNFCCC Secretariat staff, mainly from the Registration and Issuance Units of the Sustainable Development Mechanisms (SDM). Each workshop lasts three days and provides comprehensive insights on project investment decisions, financial indicators, determination of financial benchmarks, and the actual additionality guidance of the CDM EB. A second workshop will take place early 2011.



Swiss Parliament hearing on Emissions Trading

The upper chamber of the Swiss Parliament - the Council of States - currently discusses the revision of the CO2 law for the post-2012 period. In a hearing of the Environment Committee, Axel Michaelowa provided input on emissions trading and the Kyoto Mechanisms. He stressed the key role of absolute targets for domestic emissions trading, the need to link the Swiss emissions trading system to the EU ETS and the importance to liberalize imports of credits from the Kyoto Mechanisms.




Programmatic CDM in focus in Zurich 

Daisuke Hayshi and Nicolas Müller highlighted Perspectives' experience in CDM methodologies and support of PoA coordinators at the 2nd workshop of the Zurich Carbon Market Association held on September 26. The workshop attracted over 50 participants well beyond Zurich, showcasing the importance of the Zurich carbon community.




New issue of "CDM Highlights" published

A new issue of the GTZ newsletter "CDM Highlights" was published recently. The newsletter, which is co-edited by Perspectives Climate Change,  provides carbon market news for the development community with a focus on the CDM and is published by the GTZ Climate Protection Programme on behalf of BMZ. The recent issue is available [here].



Support of UNFCCC Secretariat 

The UNFCCC Secretariat has asked Axel Michaelowa, Senior Founding Partner of Perspectives, to draft a technical paper summarising the submissions made by governments and observers regarding the controversial negotiation topic of standardised baselines for the CDM. Michaelowa, who co-authors the paper with Randall Spalding-Fecher from South Africa, sees the paper as crucial opportunity to explain the complex subject of baseline standardisation to climate negotiators continuously short of time and hopes that it leads to a constructive decision of the Cancun Conference of the Parties.



Study for USEPA starts 

The US Environmental Protection Agency has retained a consortium of the Stockholm Environmental Institute, Perspectives and the University of Zurich for a study on "Analysis and Approaches for International Project-Based Offset Mechanisms", focusing on the application of standardised baselines. The study will assess use of performance standards to date and illustrate how a performance standard could be developed for selected CDM project types. A focus will be on how key problems of project-specific additionality determination could be overcome by benchmarking approaches



New issue of "CDM Highlights" published

A new issue of the GTZ newsletter "CDM Highlights" was published recently. The newsletter, which is co-edited by Perspectives Climate Change,  provides carbon market news for the development community with a focus on the CDM and is published by the GTZ Climate Protection Programme on behalf of BMZ. The recent issue is available [here].



New issue of "CDM Highlights" published

A new issue of the GTZ newsletter "CDM Highlights" was published recently. The newsletter, which is co-edited by Perspectives Climate Change,  provides carbon market news for the development community with a focus on the CDM and is published by the GTZ Climate Protection Programme on behalf of BMZ. The recent issue is available [here].



New issue of "CDM Highlights" published

A new issue of the GTZ newsletter "CDM Highlights" was published recently. The newsletter, which is co-edited by Perspectives Climate Change,  provides carbon market news for the development community with a focus on the CDM and is published by the GTZ Climate Protection Programme on behalf of BMZ. The recent issue is available [here].



New issue of "CDM Highlights" published

A new issue of the GTZ newsletter "CDM Highlights" was published recently. The newsletter, which is co-edited by Perspectives Climate Change,  provides carbon market news for the development community with a focus on the CDM and is published by the GTZ Climate Protection Programme on behalf of BMZ. The recent issue is available [here].



2nd Edition of KfW PoA Blueprint Book released

Compared to the first version of the PoA Blueprint Book (first printed in May 2009) several rules and procedures relevant for the development of PoAs have been revised in the course of 2009. With the first 2 PoAs registered and a relatively large number of PoAs currently in the pipeline, the level of experience about PoAs has largely increased since the first KfW PoA Blueprint Book was developed. This updated version of the PoA Blueprint Book takes into account the revised framework conditions for PoA development as well as it incorporates the advanced level of experience with the still very young concept.

In addition to the revised regulatory framework, this updated version includes 2 additional technology chapters (small hydro power and efficient chillers) as well as provides 3 case studies of real PoAs in three different countries.



New issue of "CDM Highlights" published

A new issue of the GTZ newsletter "CDM Highlights" was published recently. The newsletter, which is co-edited by Perspectives Climate Change,  provides carbon market news for the development community with a focus on the CDM and is published by the GTZ Climate Protection Programme on behalf of BMZ. The recent issue is available [here].



Perspectives' 10th project registered

The N2O reduction project entitled "Secondary catalytic reduction of N2O emissions at ONPI nitric acid plant in Bacong, the Philippines" got registered by UNFCCC on 1 March 2010, and as Perspectives' 10th registered CDM project. The project development process was challenging as it was the first ever N2O reduction project in the Philippines and so the DNA took a very prudent approach to the host country approval of the project. Furthermore, the project had to request a deviation from the applied methodology AM0034 becuase it used an automated system for measurement of N2O concentration that was not stipulated in the methodology. The successful registration of this challenging project has demonstrated again our capability of delivering a top quality solution to the CDM market.



New issue of "CDM Highlights" published

A new issue of the GTZ newsletter "CDM Highlights" was published recently. The newsletter, which is co-edited by Perspectives Climate Change,  provides carbon market news for the development community with a focus on the CDM and is published by the GTZ Climate Protection Programme on behalf of BMZ. The recent issue is available [here].



Study on standardised baselines as an option to enhance CDM

Perspectives successfully completed the first phase of a study commissioned by the Department for International Development (DFID), UK, on the use of standardised baselines as a means for improving the CDM. Based on the present status of the CDM, and the extent to which standardised baselines has so far been used under the CDM, the study takes a look at how an increased use of standardised baselines could add efficiency and effectiveness to the CDM. The study explores in particular key issues related to the desing of standardised baselines and their particular implementation. It further analyses the expected impact of a greater use of standardised baselines under the CDM. In a second phase the study is to develop case studies on the use of a CDM based standardised baselines for selected sectors. The final report is to be published in May 2010. The interim report on phase I can be downloaded [here]. The summary for policy makers is also available [here].



New issue of "CDM Highlights" published

A new issue of the GTZ newsletter "CDM Highlights" was published recently. The newsletter, which is co-edited by Perspectives Climate Change,  provides carbon market news for the development community with a focus on the CDM and is published by the GTZ Climate Protection Programme on behalf of BMZ. The recent issue is available at:



Invitation to CDM-stakeholders to comment on draft rules & procedures for the DNA of Saudi Arabia

In June 2009, the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia fromally established its DNA by a High Royal Decree, and has provided UNFCCC with notification of the same. Perspectives as been engaged to support the Kingdom in developing the rules and procedures for the DNA. As the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia wishes to obtain additional feedback from external experts on the same, Perspectives invites all CDM stakeholders with relevant experience to provide comments and feedback on the DNA's draft rules. If you are interested in doing so by mid-November 2009, please contact Sonja Butzengeiger at butzengeiger(at)



One more CDM project registered without request for review

The waste water treatmet project "AANE Belitung biogas recovery from Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME) ponds and biogas flaring/ utilisation" in Indonesia was registered by the UNFCCC as project # 2612 on 11th October 2009 - only about a year after the work on the PDD commenced. Sonja Butzengeiger, Managing Director Germany and project coordinator: "The project had a challenging start in September 2008 as the more advantageous version 9 of AMS III.H was expiring in October 2008. However, the example shows nicely that even in today's regulative environment projects can be registered relatively quickly- if project owner, DOE and an experienced consultant work smoothly together. We are also happy to see that our work has once again been accepted by the UNFCCC smoothly."



Successful registration of 3 CFL projects

Three small-scale CDM projects on the dissemination of comapact fluorescent lamps (CFL) all taking place in India received successful registration by the CDM-Executive Board. After the first project received successful registration in February 2009, two additional projects got successfully registered in July 2009. Currently such projects are in the implementation and monitoring stage. Perspectives and OSRAM Germany have successfully been working jointly on developing a hands on approach for implementing project activities under the CDM scheme that generate certified emission reduction ( CERs) by distributing CFL lamps to households that have a power grid connection.



Perspectives analyses sectoral approaches for post-2012

The analysis includes the proposed mechanism "sectoral trading", "sectoral crediting", "standardised baseline" and "Crediting of NAMAs (Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Action)", and covers both qualitative and quantitative aspects. First results are expected prior to COP15. Perspectives conducts the study in close cooperation with Point Carbon and University of Zurich.



Perspectives and US partners achieve the first ever approval of a CDM methodology for the agricultural sector 

The United Nations, at its june meeting, gave approval for the broad application of the first agricultural methodology for Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) projects for reducing greenhouse gas emissions.

For more details, please read the press release  or contact us directly.   



Landfill aeration quickly reduces methane- new CDM methodology developed by Perspectives approved by CDM Executive Board

Collecting landfill gas and burning it is a cumbersome, lengthy process and frequently performs much worse than expected. Therefore, Perspectives enjoyed the assignment from US-based company Mundus Aer to develop a CDM methodology for landfill aeration. By blowing large amounts of air into a closed landfill, methane generation is prevented and the organic carbon in the deposited waste oxidizes quickly. Within a few years, waste can become almost fully inert. The challenge in the methodology development was to convince the CDM regulators that methane generation is actually prevented irreversible. Given that the technology addresses old landfills whose waste composition may be unknown, we also had to prevent prohibitive monitoring procedures. This is achieved by innovative sampling procedures. Axel Michaelowa, senior founding partner of Perspectives, sees the approval of methodology AM 0083 as necessary condition to harness CDM potential in the waste sector that hitherto could not be tapped: "Landfill aeration is a technology that can mobilize significant emission reductions in a short amount of time. It will not be plagued by the endemic performance problems of landfill gas collection." With the approval of AM 0083, Perspectives has further increased its methodology success rate to 89%.



First CDM project for energy-efficient lighting registered

The first project for the replacement of incandescent light bulbs (ILB) by energy efficient lighting technology was registered under the Kyoto Protocol's Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) in February 2009. The project takes place in the Visakhapatnam region in the Indian state of Andrah Pradesh. The project will reduce greenhouse gas emissions by reducing the electricity demand of households due to replacing energy-intensive ILB with efficient Compact Fluorescent Lamps (CFL). Since ILB consume five times more electricity than CFL, the project aims to earn approximately 112,000 carbon credits by the end of 2012.

Perspectives GmbH has supported OSRAM GmbH, the German project developer and one of the largest lamp manufacturers worldwide, in developing a workable approach to implement this very challenging project type under the CDM scheme. OSRAM and Perspectives also expect the registration of further two CDM projects of the same type during the next couple of months.




Major amendments to ACM0002

At its 47th meeting, the Executive Board approved substantial changes to ACM0002 proposed by Perspectives GmbH on behalf of of SN Power. The recent changes to the methodology expand its applicability conditions and open new opportunities at existing renewable power plants. With over 40% of all registered projects, ACM0002 is by far the most important large scale methodology. Previous versions of this methodology were very limited in their applicability conditions: only new plants and the addition of new units at existing plants were eligible.

Following the revisions of ACM0002 proposed by Perspectives GmbH for SN Power, the methodology will now also allow for retrofits of existing plants as well as replacements at existing plants. This represents a major expansion of the methodology 's applicability. Substancial increases in both generation efficiency as well as production capacity could be achieved at many existing renewable power generation sites worldwide. Hydropower plants as well as geothermal plants are expected to have the highest potential for such CDM projects. According to Perspectives GmbH, replacements and retrofits are highly sustainable projects as they do not lead to any of the side effects generally associated with the construction of new plants.





Point Carbon buys Perspectives to become carbon project "power house"

We are proud to announce that our long experienced business partner Point Carbon, with it's head office in Oslo and us, Perspectives GmbH will form a more globally acting, independent power house.

Your advantage will be that our combined competencies and experiences enable us to offer a full set of advisory services to offset projects and portfolios at all developmental stages and all places of the value chain. With extending our global network, we will also be available for you in Kiev, London, Malmö, Oslo, Tokyo, Washington D.C. and Zurich.


For more details, please read the press release  or contact us directly.


We are looking forward to a continuation of our business relationship.

Your Perspectives Team




CDM Project "Chumporn applied wastewater treatment" registered by CDM-EB

The CDM project that reduces GHG emissions by operating a modern wastewater treatment system and by energetically using the generated biogas is expected to generate 23,450 CERs per year. The fixed 10-year crediting period started on 9 February 2009. Perspectives managed the CDM registration process for Deutsche Gesellschaft für Technische Zusammenarbeit (GTZ), who is also project participant and will use part of the CERs for offsetting its travelling emissions. The project is also applying for Gold Standard accreditation, underpinning its sustainable development benefits. Sonja Butzengeiger, Managing Director Germany of Perspectives: "We are proud that the project got registered without any request for corrections or review, especially in times where the CDM Executive Board becomes more and more stringent. This shows that even in this quickly changing and sometimes challenging regulative environment, solid project opportunities can make it throughout the registration process if high-quality support and experience are provided."  




Guidebook on PoA development under the CDM/JI

Commissioned by KfW Bankengruppe, Germany, Perspectives has developed "PoA blueprint book: Guidebook for PoA operators under the CDM/JI". The CDM/JI project cycle entails a substantial amount of transaction costs with a high fixed element. As this was felt to be prohibitive for small CDM projects with high development benefits, the programmatic approach was introduced by the CDM Executive Board in 2007 and is likely to be introduced for Track 2 JI in 2009. However, the practical experience with PoAs to date is relatively limited because the instrument is still new and there are several bottlenecks in the regulatory framework. 

By offering PoA blueprints for selected programme types, this guidebook aims to help potential PoA operators to understand the way a PoA can generally be developed. The guidebook assesses six key types of PoAs - energy efficient lighting for households, improved biomass stoves, biodigesters for small farmers, solar water heaters, refurbishment of industrial boilers and improvement of building energy efficiency. The analysis provides concrete examples for methodological, financial and institutional requirements for the successful PoA operation.




France pioneers JI methodology for N2O reduction from adipic acid production

After the successful development of a CDM methodology for N2O reduction from adipic acid production, Perspectives has supported French chemical company Rhodia in getting approval for a methodology to be used in a Joint Implementation (JI) project in France. The French JI focal point only approves JI projects in France after a methodology has been developed. The challenge regarding the methodology was to take into account the existing N2O abatement plant installed under a voluntary agreement of the chemical industry in the late 1990s. That plant has a relatively low efficiency of around 90% due to a complex configuration of the adipic acid plant; it will be upgraded to destroy at least 98%. Total ERU volume of the project by 2013 is estimated to reach 2.5 million.




Methodology support for first carbon-neutral city

The Abu Dhabi Future Energy Company (Masdar) has hired Perspectives for support of methodology development of exciting CDM project ideas. The most innovative project is the construction of an entirely carbon neutral city for 90'000 people (40'000 inhabitants and 50'000 commuters) in Abu Dhabi. The city will be fully powered by renewable energy. With higly energy-efficient buildings and a novel transportation system that will allow to ban private cars from the city's roads, the city will be a lighthouse project in the traditionally energy profligate Middle East. Perspectives' Senior Founding Partner Axel Michaelowa on the CDM perspectives of Masdar City: "With an entirely integrated and optimized greenhouse gas reduction programme for an urban structure, Masdar City is a challenge for CDM methodology development, as methodologies have been traditionally developed along narrow lines of specific technologies. We will use our experience to support a differentiated methodology strategy that will eventually cover all key greenhouse gas reductions achieved by Masdar City".




Perspectives launches

Perspectives has developed the CDM networking tool and project database for the German Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety.

This platform serves the facilitatation of information exchange between Latin American and German CDM actors in order to enhance CDM-investments in Latin America, effectively match CER-supply and demand, increase clean technology transfer between Germany and Latin America as well as to provide the advantages of a wide and interdisciplinary CDM-network.

The main features of are:

  • An interesting CDM project database with young projects from the steadily growing Latin American CDM-pipeline.
  • Detailed member profiles of attractive CDM actors like project developers, investors, technology suppliers, consultants and CER-buyers from Germany and Latin America.
  • Comprehensive host country profiles with key information on the national CDM environment, host country approval procedures, current CDM numbers and interesting links.
  • A CDM news section offering insights on the latest developments of the Latin American carbon market.

The website is operated by Perspectives - see more at




First CDM CFL projects in the pipeline

... developing countries. Perspectives and OSRAM Germany have successfully been working on developing a hands on approach for implementing project activities under the CDM scheme that CERs by distributing Compact Fluorescent Lamps (CFL) to households that have a power grid connection. A household can save up to 80 % of electricity per replaced lamp. In total, each project can save up to 60 GWh electricity per annum. This would result in annual emission reductions of up to 55.000 tCO2.

A highly sophisticated implementation and monitoring approach was necessary to link regulatory requirements given in the CDM with processes that make this project type operational for project developer. The highly complicated concept is the reason that this project type has not been registered under the CDM so far. The first two projects of OSRAM and Perspectives are expected to get UNFCCC registration soon and a third project is currently in the validation stage. 




Study on state and reform options of the CDM

A consortium under the lead of Perspectives was awarded a contract by the British Ministry of Environment (DEFRA) to develop a study on the state and reform options of the CDM. Under the title 'Flexible Market Mechanisms for Carbon Mitigation-Specification for further work on Mechanism Design and Reform' Perspectives, Ecofys and Arrhenius Institute will review the current state of the CDM, assess potential options for reform of the CDM as well as expected evolution in national and international climate regimes.


The focus of the review lies on the success and the criticism the CDM has experienced so far, and identification of points for improvement regarding present and future challenges (environmental integrity and barrier reduction).


On the basis of the review of current CDM performance, Perspectives and its partners will assess Ex ante Benchmarks at a project level, Ex ante Benchmarks at a sector level, Programmatic approaches and further proposed options to reform the CDM.


The analysis will also evaluate which changes in types of climate change regimes applied to different countries are likely in the Post 2012 regime. Furthermore, the likely graduation of some CDM host countries to more stringent commitments and effects of such a change are going to be analyzed, with a view of their final participation in a global cap and trade system.


The final report is expected to be published in early July 2008.




Perspectives presents new CDM Guide Book on behalf of DEFRA

At a packed side event at the 13th UNFCCC Conference of the Parties in December 2007, the Guide Book on CDM rules and methodologies was unveiled. The guidebook written by Perspectives and EcoRessources had been commissioned by the UK Department of Environment, Food and Rural Areas (DEFRA). It describes the principles and different levels of CDM rulemaking as well as the most widely applied baseline methodologies and their pitfalls. Hence, the CDM Guide Book will be an important reference for all CDM project developers and investors.

The 150 participants in the side event engaged in a lively discussion of challenges encountered in applying CDM methodologies and ways to integrate the different ongoing efforts to provide more transparency regarding CDM rules.


The Guide Book can be downloaded here.





Supercritical coal power plant methodology approved by CDM EB

At its 34th meeting, the CDM Executive Board approved ACM 13 for "new grid connected fossil fuel fired power plants using a less GHG intensive technology". This methodology is largely based on Perspectives' methodology submission "Grid-connected supercritical coal-fired power generation", developed for the National Thermal Power Corporation in India. Development of this methodology had been financed through the Japanese government.

Axel Michaelowa, CEO of Perspectives: "We are proud that with the approval of Perspectives' second methodology for power plant efficiency improvement we continue to play a key role in making the CDM incentive available to thermal power plant projects in China and India. Whether the global effort to reduce greenhouse gas emissions will succeed depends on investment decisions in new coal power plants within the next two decades. - Unfortunately, for political reasons the CDM EB has introduced a sunset clause which will limit the application of the methodology to 15% of the power generation in a country."




First large greenfield gas power plant CDM project registered

On August 11, the 1147 MW gas power plant of Torrent Power in Gujarat, India was registered by the CDM Executive Board. Perspectives had supported the development of the Project Design Document. Torrent Power's project is the second project registered under baseline methodology AM0029, which was developed by Perspectives for Torrent Power. However, the first registered project has a capacity of only 120 MW. Torrent Power's Sugen plant forecasts an annual CER volume of 3.2 million, which makes it comparable in size to the biggest CDM projects in the chemical industry. The power plant will start operations in early 2008.


Axel Michaelowa, CEO of Perspectives, sees the registration of Torrent Power's project as a breakthrough for power plant efficiency improvement in developing countries: "Bending the emissions paths of rapidly industrializing countries downwards requires incentives to improve the efficiency of new fossil fuelled power plants. By registering Torrent Power's project, the CDM Executive Board has shown its willingness to support such activities. We hope that this willingness will also extend to greenfield supercritical coal-fired power plants, where the EB currently discusses a methodology developed by Perspectives."




Perspectives next CDM methodology approved by the CDM EB “Efficiency improvement by boiler replacement or rehabilitation and optional fuel switch in fossil fuel-fired steam boiler systems”

Today, the CDM Executive Board approved yet another CDM methodology developed by Perspectives. The methodology is applicable for retrofitting or replacing inefficient industrial or utility boilers and is abbreviated AM0056.

AM0056 has been developed by Perspectives under the Future CDM Project financed by the Japanese Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry (METI). It will be widely replicable because the methodology incorporates boiler replacement and boiler retrofit as well as fuel switching. The key features of the methodology are procedures to calculate specific fuel and energy consumption of baseline equipment taking into account best possible operating conditions of the old boiler system. AM0056 is applicable for single and for multi boiler installations. The methodology meets the requirements of conservative emission reduction calculation as required by the Methodology Panel as well as the need of project developers to receive CERs according to the real achieved GHG emission reduction.


According to Matthias Krey, Managing Director of the Zurich office of Perspectives, the methodology is especially interesting for projects where inefficient coal-fired boilers of a large size are replaced by modern natural gas-fired systems.




CDM-Potential in Vietnam: Partnership with VNEEC established

Perspectives has confirmed its partnership with the Vietnamese CDM experts at VNEEC - Energy and Environment Consultany Joint Stock Company. The objective of the partnership is to jointly analyse the CDM potential in Vietnam and target the most promising sectors. An example hereof is the vast potential in the Hydro Power sector. Several CDM project opportunities are being identified that can also be used in the EU Emission Trading Scheme (EU-ETS).


Further Informationen on VNEEC can be found here.



[Translate to Englisch:] 31.08.2008

[Translate to Englisch:]

Energiesparlampen-Projekte der CDM-Pipeline

Perspectives und OSRAM Germany arbeiten seit längerem gemeinsam an der Entwicklung eines operationellen Ansatzes für die Durchführung von CDM Projekten zur Verteilung von Energiesparlampen in Entwicklungsländern. Die Projekte zielen darauf ab, ineffiziente Glühlampen durch hocheffiziente Energiesparlampen zu ersetzen. Insgesamt erzielt ein solches CDM Projekt bis zu 60 GWh Stromeinsparung pro Jahr und reduziert im Jahr bis zu 55.000 tCO2. Unter den strengen Vorgaben durch das UNFCCC wurde ein sehr aufwendiges aber doch für den Projektentwickler anwendbares Konzept für die Durchführung und das Monitoring entwickelt . Die hohen UNFCCC-Anforderungen an die Umsetzung dieses Projekttyps sind ein Hauptgrund dafür, dass bislang noch kein Projekt dieser Art umgesetzt wurde. Die ersten beiden von Perspectives und Osram entwickelten Projekte befinden sich kurz vor der Registrierung und ein drittes Projekt durchläuft gerade die Validierungsphase.




Next CDM project managed by Perspectives registered

Today, the CDM EB registered the greenhouse gas reduction project “Talia Landfill Gas Recovery Project and Electricity Production” as a CDM project activity. The project involves methane extraction from two landfill sites 40km east of the city of Nazareth (Israel). Power will be generated from the extracted biogas. In total, the project will generate 515,484 CERs up to 2013 with the option to generate further CER amount until 2027.


The project has been implemented by Madei Taas Ltd, a biogas technology provider in Israel. A participant of the project is the Kommunalkredit Public Consulting GmbH from Austria, which purchases CERs on behalf of the Austrian government to fulfil the countries' greenhouse gas reduction target under the Kyoto Protocol.
Investment to the project was in the amount of over 2 million € which will bring environmental and social well-being to the local communities through generation of clean power, job creation and odour reduction.


The project is another greenhouse gas reduction project that has been successfully managed by Perspectives and received CDM project activity status. Perspectives currently manages a portfolio of more than 15 potential CDM projects for various clients in India, Brazil, Vietnam, Thailand and South Africa.




Perspectives next CDM methodology approved by the CDM EB: “Distribution of efficient light bulbs to households”

Today the CDM EB approved the CDM methodology “Distribution of efficient light bulbs to households” (AM0046) which has been designed by Perspectives GmbH on behalf of the German light bulb manufacturer Osram GmbH. The methodology is applicable to programmes that aim to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions through the distribution of compact fluorescent light bulbs (CFLs) to a large number of households in developing countries that currently use incandescent light bulbs that are 85% less energy efficient than CFLs. It took the CDM EB more than 2 years to approve the methodology due to its complexity. The methodology incorporates novel features such as control group monitoring on a large scale that cannot be found in any other approved methodology. The project types for which AM0046 is applicable have a high replication potential in almost any country in the developing world. Most CERs can be expected in countries where the grid is dominated by coal-fired power plants and the dissemination level of CFLs is low.

The AM0046 is another proposed CDM methodology developed by Perspectives and approved by the CDM EB. In 2005, the governing body of the CDM already accepted Perspectives' “Baseline Methodology for decomposition of N2O from existing adipic acid production plants” (AM0021). Perspectives also made important contributions to the approved methodologies AM0029 for combined-cycle gas turbine power plants and AM0036 for biomass utilization in boilers.

Perspectives is now among the most successful methodology developers in the world. According to its CEO, Dr. Axel Michaelowa, Perspectives is currently developing three additional CDM methodologies in the areas of supercritical coal-fired power plants, fossil fuel-fired boiler refurbishment or replacement and synthetic fertilizer offsetting in soybean production via inoculation.