Perspectives Climate Group

Initiatives & Policy Dialogues >>

Loss and Damage


Climate change exacerbates extreme weather events like heatwaves and flash floods, leading to loss and damage (L&D) for vulnerable communities worldwide. Given that the global average temperature has already increased by more than 1.1°C from the pre-industrial period and the speed of increase is unbroken, it is almost certain that the severity and scope of climate change impacts will escalate in the coming years. The concept of L&D is particularly important to low-income and Small Island Developing States (SIDS) that are disproportionately affected by climate change while having contributed only marginally to the problem. Moreover, these nations often lack the resources to adapt to the effects of climate change, making them more susceptible to severe L&D. Consequently, any approach to L&D must include both mitigation and adaptation (including comprehensive risk management strategies) to reduce future L&Ds effectively.


“The issue of loss and damage (L&D) is increasingly recognised as a critical component of international climate policy, with a focus on providing financial and technical assistance to vulnerable developing countries. Perspectives’ overall strategic vision is to fill key knowledge gaps related to addressing L&Ds, including non-economic L&D, and instruments to raise finance for L&D that do not increase debt levels. We aim to explore a range of measures that may be appropriate for addressing L&Ds and derive actionable recommendations to governments and the civil society, besides feeding into L&D negotiation processes at the multilateral level.”

Research reports

Key publications

Consulting projects

  • 2023: EU Climate Diplomacy Support: Perspectives drafted knowledge products, and implemented, in collaboration with ICF and DG CLIMA, technical online meetings and workshops directed at EU Delegations as well as Commission services and Member State missions

Outreach activities

  • 04/2024: Presentation at a webinar of the Loss and Damage Youth Coalition
  • 02/2024: Perspectives’ webinar on Digesting the COP28 outcomes on Loss and Damage – Perspectives Climate Research
  • 02/2024: Presentation at the Adjust conference on “Justice in Finance for Climate Change Adaptation and Loss and Damage” in Berlin, Germany
  • 12/2023: Side-event on Debt-for-Climate-Swaps with the Seychelles at COP28
  • 12/2023: Side-event on Debt-for-Climate-Swaps at the Nordic Pavilion at COP28
  • 10/2023: Guest lecture at the University of Edinburgh Business School